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This study aims to explore the structure and development process of the stone pagoda of Hinokumadera Temple in Asuka, Nara Prefecture, Japan so as to examine the significance of stone pagodas of Japan. Hinokumadera Temple, where this stone pagoda is located, was constructed by emigrants from the Baekje dynasty in the 7th century. Excavation confirmed the existence of Baekje-style roof-end tiles, and Baekje's unique platform piled up with roof tiles at the Lecture Hall site. Notably, excavation also found that the layout involved the Inner Gate, the entrance gate, to the west, the Lecture Hall to the north, the main hall to the south, and the pagoda in the center east of the temple. The relevant stone pagoda was a 13-story stone pagoda which was erected in the second half of the Heian period on the site of a wooded pagoda which had been lost. A Sarira Reliquary is enshrined in the foundation stone of the wooded foundation, drawing attention. After Buddhism flowed into Japan, wooded pagodas prevailed. From the end of the 7th century to the early 8th century, stone pagodas were erected in the limited numbers, but soon faded out, leading stone pagodas not to be erected for 300 years thereafter. However, after Esoteric Buddhism was accepted in society, Japan developed its unique Buddhist arts, and had stone pagodas reemerge in the second half of the Heian period. Stone pagodas were erected again, beginning with the stone pagoda of Hinokumadera Temple. Noteworthily, a 13-story stone pagoda with dense eaves was erected on the location where the wooded pagoda was lost. This reflected unique Japanese changes in the form of a pagoda, although Chinese-style pagodas were erected earlier in Korean Peninsula-style temples. Afterwards, in the Kamakura period, with the backing of stone construction skills of Chinese emigrants, stone pagodas with dense eaves became the mainstream of Japanese layers-pagodas, and developed. In the Japan's history of stone pagodas, a pagoda style continued to be repeated regardless of ages and regions. In the Kamakura period, which is called the golden age in Japan's history of stone pagodas, diverse styles of stone pagodas were developed simultaneously, and prevailing, and of them, the layers-pagoda style was prominent. The stone pagoda of Hinokumadera Temple constitutes the prelude to such Japanese stone pagoda culture, making its importance significant.
자연계에서 풀루란 생산성이 높고 흑색색소를 분비하지 않는 Aureobasidium pullulans GM21 균주를 분리하여 풀루란 생산성과 관련된 배양조건 및 풀루란 분자량변화를 연구하였다. 분리균주는 기존의 생산균주에 비하여 흑색색소나 산성및 기타의 중성다당류가 없는 순수한 풀루룬만을 세포외 배지중으로 생산한다는 점과 풀루란 수율이 높은 것이 특징이었다. A. pullulans GM21 균주를 삼각플라스크와 발효조를 이용하여 배양하는 경우 25℃, 초기 pH 7.5에서 7% 설탕으로부터 배양 6일째 최대 58∼60%의 전환수율로 40.8∼42.0 g/ℓ의 풀루란을 생산하였다. 분리균주는 배지의 초기 pH를 6.0, 7.5로 배양하는 경우 배양 5일째 각각 분자량이 820,000과 260,000의 순수한 풀루란을 생산하였다. A fungal strain was isolated as a pullulan-producer from plant leaves and identified as Aureobasidium pullulan GM21. With A. pullulans GM21, culture conditions were optimized for the pullulan production and the changes of the molecular weight of pullulan produced were investigated according to the culture conditions. We obtained maximum conversion yield of pullulan about 58∼60%(40.8∼42.0 g/ℓ) from 7% sucrose at 25℃, initial pH 7.5 by the batch cultivations either in Erlenmeyer flask or in jar fermentor. The molecular weights of pullulan produced at initial pH 6.0 and 7.5 were 820,000 and 260,000, respectively. Compared with a conventional pullulan producer, A. pullulans IFO4464, the isolate was unique in that it produces nearly the pure pullulan into the culture medium without the contaminations of melanin-like black pigment and acidic or other neutral polysaccharides and that it produces pullulan as high as 60% conversion yield.
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A STUDY OF SI-DONG AND SO-SENG DISEASES Yong Cheol shin, O.M.D., Woo Yong Seong, O.M.D., Sok kyun kang, O.M.D. department of oriental medicine, national center, seoul, korea Studying on si-dong and so-seng diseases recorded in lyeong-chu, kyeong-maek, the authors take out the results as follows. 1. si-dong diseases are caused by chang-fu organs(臟腑) itself and separately concerned with chin(津) hyeol(血), ki(氣), ek(液) keun(筋), kol(骨). 2. so-seng diseases are caused by invasions of six climatic conditions in excess as pathogenic factors(六淫) on the meridiain and collaterals. 3. so-dong diseases are mainly chronic and deficient syndromes. 4. so-seng diseases are mainly excessive and acute syndromes.
In the study of psychosomatic disorders caused by Qi-experience, the results were as follows: 1. People are becoming more and more interested in qigong, but sometimes peple are suffer from sideeffects from Qi-experience. In oder to treat this side effects of qigong, it is important to control Qi-unbalance. And this is associated with the mechanism of stress-reaction. 2. The causes of side-effects were tension of body and mind, concentration of head, enduring breath, and wrong qigong-method, etc. 3. The symptoms of side-effects were headache, flushing face, chest discomfort, neck stiffness, indigestion, etc. 4. The theraphy of side-effects is herb-medicine, acupuncture, moxibution, and more effective by application of psychotheraphy, relaxation-theraphy, music, aroma, taping.
Serratia marcescens가 세포외 배지 중으로 분비하는 nuclease 유전자를 포함하고 있는 pNUC4 플라스미트를 E. coli에 transformation하여 E. coli에서의 분비에 관하여 연구하였다. E. coli에서 Serratia nuclease 활성이 세포내 periplasm 세포밖 배지 중에서 각각 16.6%, 54.2%, 29.2%로 측정되었다. 배양시간에 따라서 nuclease는 면적 periplasm에 축적되었으며 점차적으로 세포외 배지 중으로 분비되었고 세포내에서는 낮은 효소활성이 점차 증가되는 경향을 보였다. 분비기작을 연구하기 위해서 에너지대사 저해제인 sodium azide, signal peptide processing 저해제인 procaine, 단백질 합성 저해제인 chloramphenicol을 처리하였다. sodium azide 존재시 peripasmic nuclease 환경이 줄어들고 세포외 nuclease 활성이 증가되는 경향을 보였으며 procaine과 chloramphenicol을 처리했을 때도 이와 비슷한 결과를 보였다. 이 결과로 부터 E. coli에 있어 Serratia nuclease의 분비는 energy-dependent process 이면서 precursor processing이 필요한 inner membrane 통과와 이것과는 무관한 outer membrane 통과로 이루어져 있는 것으로 사료되었다. Secretion of Serratia marcescens nuclease by E. coli harboring pNUC4 was investigated. 29.2, 54.2 and 16.6% of total nuclease were observed in culture medium, periplasm, and cytoplasm of E.coli, respectively. To investigate the secretion mechanism of Serratia nuclease by E. coli, secretion kinetics of nuclease was examined in the presences of sodium azide, an energy metabolism inhibitor, procaine, an exoprotein processing inhibitor; and chloramphenicol, a protein synthesis inhibitor. In the presence of sodium azide, periplasmic unclease was gradually decreased and the extracellular nuclease was linearly increased according to the incubation time. Similar results were obtained in presences of procaine and chloramphenicol. From these results, we concluded that two transport processes are involved in nuclease secretion: secretion of nuclease through the inner membrane is occurred by an energy-dependent process and probably requiring precusor processing: secretion of nuclease through outer membrane does not require energy, de novo protein synthesis, and precursor processing.