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The layouts of temple buildings have been examined mainly in terms of the relations between the pagoda and the main worship hall, and, in the temple building layouts crafted before the Unified Silla period, one pagoda is commonly located at the center of the corridors. However, during the Unified Silla period, the layout changed in the way that, with the appearance of twin pagodas and the location of pagodas in spaces separate from the main hall area, the main hall is located to the east, while the pagoda is located to the west. This suggests that the main hall and the pagoda were deployed parallel to the east and the west, respectively, upgrading the pagoda's status to the status of the main hall. To date, the layouts of twin pagodas have been examined on the basis of Scene of Jianbaotapin(見寶塔品) of Lotus Sutra(法華經). However, in the Scene of Jianbaotapin, only the Dabotap Pagoda rising from underground, and the lotus-seated twin Buddhas at the Dabotap Pagoda are mentioned, while no mention of the twin pagodas is made. Basically, based on Lotus Sutra, pagodas are classified into Pagodas for Buddha, caityas enshrining sutras, and Dabotap pagodas (the Buddha of the Past). Thus, the assertion that the construction of the twin pagodas is based on Lotus Sutra cannot be verified in terms of sutras. Also, examples are hardly confirmed wherein, during the Unified Silla period, parallel-seated Buddhas were crafted on the basis of Lotus Sutra, and wherein copies of Lotus Sutra were discovered even from twin pagodas. Considering this, the assertion that the layout of twin pagodas was based on Lotus Sutra has limitations. It is very likely that, during the Unified Silla period, the deployment of twin pagodas was arranged in terms of their relation with the Buddha image in the worship hall. Notably, in the main worship halls which belong to the extant twin pagodas, Hwaeom(華嚴)-related Buddha images are enshrined, offering significant implications. The layout of twin pagodas needs to be further studied with the layout guideline divided into Geumgwangmyeong Sutra during the early stages of Unified Silla, and into Avatamaka Sutra during the midterm stages of Unified Silla.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the original location of the Eight Classes of Divine Beings(八部衆) - inscribed on the Twin Pagodas - in the possession of National Museum of Korea and to examine their importance in the overall iconography. The Eight Classes of Divine Beings, which were established in the middle of the 8th century, appeared thereafter on the stylobates of stone pagodas for some 200 years, and underwent diverse iconographic changes. Although the Eight Classes of Divine Beings are mentioned in various scriptures, their layouts or iconography are not specified. Also, since China and Japan have no diverse iconographic changes, Korea has few targets to compare with its Eight Classes of Divine Beings. Thus, iconographic changes of Silla's Eight Classes of Divine Beings are supposed to be found out within Silla's stone pagodas. The image of Eight Classes of Divine Beings, which is in the possession of National Museum of Korea, was discovered when the Castle of Gyeongju was removed, and then was relocated to the museum. The image is known to have been relocated from a certain temple site in Gyeongju, and to be from twin pagodas. However, in a recent excavation work, one face stone inscribed with Eight Classes of Divine Beings was discovered, in the allegedly Inyongsa Temple site(傳仁容寺址), one of twin-pagoda temples dating back to Silla, north of Mt. Namsan. This drew attention. We thus presented various evidences, and estimated that there is a high possibility that the image of Eight Classes of Divine Beings in the possession of National Museum of Korea may be a member of the twin pagodas in the allegedly Inyongsa Temple site. Generally, twin pagodas with relief images tend to avoid identical iconographies; the appearance of the image of Eight Classes of Divine Beings on the twin pagodas holds a significant meaning in the historical changes of the iconographies. These changes are found in the twin pagodas of Sungboksa Temple site; the image of Eight Classes of Divine Beings, in the possession of National Museum of Korea, attempted to make more positive changes, thereby embodying a guarding image, which had not appeared before in Gyeongju. This image, which appeared significantly in the 9th century, is believed to have helped the iconographic establishment of the Eight Classes of Divine Beings which guarded Buddhist pagodas. Thus, the image of Eight Classes of Divine Beings in the possession of National Museum of Korea is believed to have played a crucial role in creating Silla's iconography of Eight Classes of Divine Beings in the time of the 8th century transiting to the 9th century. The appearance and establishment of Eight Classes of Divine Beings inscribed on twin pagodas developed into new iconographies, which is believed to have been made possible from a different perspective of the development of Silla's stone pagodas. This suggests that images of Eight Clases of Divine Beings, which appeared in Gyeongju and Gangwon, developed not separately, but in the iconographic homogeneity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between airborne total dust and man-made mineral fibers (MMMF), and to estimate total dust concentration to maintain below the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV^ⓡ) for the MMMF. The regression coefficients between airborne total dust concentrations and fiber concentrations determined in the industries producing glass fibers, rock wool, refractory ceramic and continuous filament glass fibers products were 0.41, 0.42, 0.20 and 0.19, respectively. The size characteristics of fibers as well as the amounts of contaminated non-fibrous dusts could affect the correlation intensities. When total dust and fiber exposure data were compared with the occupational exposure limits, there was a large gap between two evaluation results. The regression coefficient between total dust and fiber data was increased (r² = 0.88) in the process of insulation installation generating in the higher levels of glass or rock wool fibers. In this case an estimated total dust concentration of glass wool or rock wool fibers complying with the ACGIH TLV (1 f/㏄$gt; was 1.7 ㎎/㎥ . In conclusion, the total dust and fiber concentrations was highly correlated at the higher exposure levels so that total dust-monitoring data could be used to control simply and economically and to estimate worker's exposure to fibers.
Potential chemical hazards encountered in painting operation of four shipyards and a ship-repair shop were investigated through the material safety data sheets (MSDS). Material safety data sheets (MSDS) for 307 paints, 50 thinners and 34 binders were collected and reviewed. It was shown that various organic solvents such as aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, glycols, glycol ether acetates and esters were contained in painting materials. Of these solvents, xylene was found in the largest number of painting materials. sixty percent of the thinners contained xylene in the contents of 20-100%. Other most frequently found solvents were 1-methoxypropanol, 1-methoxypropyl acetate, n-butanol, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, isopropanol, and n-butyl acetate, etc. Glycol ethers such as 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME), 2-methoxyethyl acetate (2-MEA), 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE), 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (2-EEA) and 2-butoxyethanol (2-BA) were regarded as having the potential to cause adverse reproductive effects, embryotoxic effect and hematotoxic effects, and were found in some epoxy panting materials. Coal tar pitch was included in some paints(13%) where polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could be contaminated. Inorganic pigments such as lead chromate and zinc potassium chromate were found in some paints (8%). The epoxy resin based paints, which may contain isocyanates such as toluene diisocyanates and hexamethylene diisocyanates causing potential sensitization and asthma to upper respiratory organ, were mostly used in the shipyards. The constituents in the MSDS were significantly different from the results analyzed using gas chromatography/mass detector: minor constituents or impurities were omitted in many MSDS. In conclusion, xylene was the most frequent organic solvent in painting materials, and glycol ethers, including 2-ME, 2-MEA, 2-EE, 2-EEA and 2-BA, were found some products. Also, painting workers may be exposed to PAHs, lead, chromate, isocyanates, organic tin and other various chemicals. The compositions of chemicals in painting materials were variable significantly, and the hazards were changed. These facts should be considered in environmental monitoring and control of the hazards.
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Various man-made mineral fibers(MMMF) including refractory ceramic fiber(RCF) have been used widely in industries as insulation materials. The effect of fibrous dust on human health depends on fiber size, concentration (exposure level), and durability in biological system. Therefore, these parameters should be determined to evaluate accurately the potential risk of fibers on human health. The purpose of this study was to characterize the size of airborne fiber and the workers' exposure to airborne fibers in refractory ceramic fiber manufacturing and processing factories. Airborne fibers were collected on 25-mm mixed cellulose ester membrane filters at personal breathing zones, and analyzed by A and B counting rules of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH) Method # 7400. The average ratios of the fiber density by B rule to the fiber density by A rule was 0.84. This result indicates that the proportion of respirable fibers (<3 ㎛ diameter) in air samples was high. The average diameter and length of airborne fibers were 1.05㎛ and 35㎛, respectively. The average fiber concentrations (GM) of all personal samples was 0.26f/cc, and the average concentration was highest at blanket cutting and packing processes. The fifty seven percent of personal air samples was exceeded the proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists(ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value(TLV), i.e. 0.2 f/cc. It was concluded that the RCF industrial workers had the higher potential health risk due to small fiber diameter, long fiber length, and high exposure level to the airborne fibers.
It is Amitabha Trinity stone cave in Gunwi that the representative masterpiece of Silla period(B.C. 57~A.D. 935) made by sculptor's accurate understanding about outdoor and his intuition. Before making this, sculptor designed by the intuition and the style-the sense of the times. In a word, he installed the most suitable Buddhist image in the very unique method in Gunwi cave. This is a successful combination of sculptor's intuition and impression. Thus, he had worked on natural cave at a height of ten meters through excavation, have raisen Amitabha Buddha trinity statue to a cave inside. Looking into the inside of the cave, we spied a careful plan with sculpture traces of those days, Buddha statue's height and sculpture technique. Until now, I classify this images as early T'ang(A.D.618-712) style of China, so making period is early-seventh century(early Unified Silla). But, this has characteristic elements of nonobjective and massive Buddha statue in a stable pose, rising lines of the drapery, Adonis's face of Bodhisattiva statue, nimbus designed flames and buddhist gems, expression method lengthenning lower part of the body-despite of the prominent paunch. As stated above, such expressions are acknowledged as Northen Ch'i(A.D.550-577) and Sui dynasty(A.D.581-618) style of China in a sense. The mid-seventh century-from c.a. 660 to 668 that Silla unified three kingdoms- must not have had the artistic works because there had been no cultural exchange with T'ang for being fierce battles between three kingdoms, between Silla and T'ang at this period. Because of a artistic vacuum, I think it was too difficult for Silla to making the great work such a Gunwi cave. But, after 680, Silla have accepted fully flourishing T'ang(A.D.713-761)'s culture in every respect-politic, economy and culture etc.-through reopenning foreign trade. In a result, at this period, Gyeongju(Silla's capital) already have had the very splendorous brick with Floral Design. Besides, massive abstraction seen frequently during Sui dynasty disappeared all at once with unification. Instead of, this period showed overpoweringly realistic and sensual style of flourishing T'ang. For example, there are four Deveakings of Sacheonwangsa-Temple, four Deveakings of Gameunsa Temple's sarira casket, Wolji's Buddha image in making pressing method and Buddha images on all sides of Nungjitop. Thus, regarding as Silla's situation(after the late-seventh century), I cannot endorse existing opinion Gunwi cave's making period is the late-seventh century. This paper's purpose lies in examining stone buddhist statue's making and installing method through Amitaddha Trinity stone cave in Gunwi. and sculptor's making design and period through Buddha and Bodhisattva images' getting dressed method, placing problem.