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항생물질 발효산업 부산물인 부산물오니의 농업적 활용성을 검토하기 위하여 98년 5월과 8월 두 차례 열무의 생장량 및 토양 화학성에 미치는 효과를 비교하였다. 오니의 처리수준은 열무의 표준시비량(N-P₂O-K₂O=160-59-104 ㎏/㏊)을 대조구로 하여 오니 및 관행퇴비를 각각 1000 ㎏/㏊ 씩 추가 시용 하는 오니 및 퇴비 첨가구 와 오니 및 퇴비 각각에 함유된 질소량의 30%를 질소 시용량에서 공제하는 질소공제 오니 및 퇴비구 등 5개 처리로 비교하였다. 오니 첨가구 및 질소공제 오니구의 열무 발아율과 초기생육은 대조구, 퇴비 첨가구 및 질소공제 퇴비구에 비하여 부진하였다. 이는 미분해된 오니의 토양중 분해과정에서 생성될 수 있는 암모니아가스 피해에 기인된 것으로 생각된다. 그러나 수확기의 열무 수량은 오니 첨가구 및 질소공제 오니구를 포함한 모든 처리구간에 1차 및 2차 시험 모두 유의성 있는 차이가 인정되지 않았다. 이는 오니의 시용에 의한 열무의 생육이 후반기에 빠르게 증진되었다는 것을 시사하고 있다. 식물체의 질소함량과 토양의 무기태 질소 함량은 오니의 시용에 의하여 증가되는 경향이었으나 항생물질 cephalosporin-C는 열무의 지상부나 지하부 그리고 시험 후 토양에서 검출되지 않았다. 따라서 부산물오니는 유기물(750 g/㎏)과 전질소(56 g/㎏)를 많이 함유하고 유해 중금속 함량이 허용치 이하인 점을 고려할 때 양질의 유기물 자원으로서 농업적 활용가치가 인정되었다. To investigate the effects of waste sludge from antibiotic fermentation on the growth of young radish and chemical properties of soil, five levels of fertilizer, control (recommended fertilizer, N-P₂O_5-K₂O=160-59-104 ㎏/㏊), AS(control + sludge 1,000 ㎏/㏊), AC(control + conventional compost 1,000 ㎏/㏊), SNS(control - subtracting 30% N of sludge + sludge 1,000 ㎏/㏊) and SNC(control - subtracting 30% N of conventional compost + conventional compost 1,000 ㎏/㏊) were applied and radish was grown twice with same treatments on May and August in 1998. Germination rate and early growth of young radish grown with AS and SNS were lower than those grown in control and with AC, SNC. This negative effects by adding the sludge in the early growth seemed to be caused by damage of ammonia gas released during degradation of the sludge in soil. However, yield of young radish showed no significant difference among all the treatments including the AS and SNS at the 1st and 2nd experiment, and these suggested that the latter half of growth of young radish was accelerated by adding the sludge. Contents of T-N in young radish and inorganic N in soil showed a tendency to increase by adding the sludge while antibiotic substance, cephalosporin-C, was not detected in plant material and soils after harvest of young radish in both experiments. Consequently, waste sludge from antibiotic fermentation, which contains high levels of organic matter and nitrogen could be used as an useful resource in agriculture.
Soybean plants inoculated Bradyrhizobium japonicum MN 110 were grown in outdoor perlite pots with nitrogen free nutrient solution containing 1.0 mM-P(control) and 0.05 mM-P(stress) and harvested at 28, 35, 42 and 49 days after transplanting (DAT) to examine the effect of phosphorus deficiency on ureide concentration of and distribution to different plant organ in nitrogen fixing soybean plant during the vegetative growth. Total dry mass of control plants increased 8.9 fold and that of phosphorus deficient plant increased 2.7 fold during the experimental period. Phosphorus deficiency reduced total phosphorus and nitrogen accumulation by 80%, 40% respectively, at 28 DAT and 93%, 84%, respectively, at 49 DAT. Nitrogen concentration was reduced by phosphorus deficiency in all tissues with leaf and stem tissues affected to a greater degree than nodule and root tissues at every sampling date. Phosphorus deficiency significantly reduced soluble reduced-N and ureide-N concentration in leaf and stem but did not affect those in root. The proportion of soluble reduced-N in leaf was reduced from 60% to 50% but increased from 10% to 20% in the roots. The proportion of ureide-N in leaf of control plants was higher than that in phosphorus deficient plants, whereas, roots of phosphorus deficient plants contained a higher proportion of ureide-N than those of control plants. These indicated that phosphorus deficiency not only inhibit nitrogen fixation of nodules but also restrict the translocation of fixed nitrogen out of the root system into the xylem.
생물비료는 아직도 한국에서는 생소한 용어다. 한국에서 생물비료라 함은 식물추출액, 퇴비류-다양한 형태의 미생물 혼합제 등으로 인식되고 있다. 그러나 최근에는 식물영양요소의 흡수나 이용도를 증진시키는 토양미생물 사용으로 언급하기도 한다. 본 개관은 식물성장을 증진시키는 것으로 알려진 PGPR 서로 다른 기작과 실질적 역할에 대하여 검토하였다. The sustainability of conventional agriculture which is characterized by input dependent and ecologically simplified food production system is vague. Chemicals and present practices used in agriculture are not only costly but also have widespread implications on human and animal health, food quality and safety and environmental quality. Thus there is a need for alternative farming practices to sustain food production for the escalating population and conserve environment for future generations. The present research scenario in the area of plant microbe interactions for maintaining sustainable agriculture suggests that the level of internal regulation in agro-ecosystems is largely dependent on the level of plant and microbial diversity present in the soil. In agro-ecosystems, biodiversity performs a variety of ecological services beyond the production of food, including recycling of nutrients, regulation of microclimate and local hydrological processes, suppression of undesirable organisms and detoxification of noxious chemicals. Controlling the soil microflora to enhance the predominance of beneficial and effective microorganisms can help improve and maintain soil chemical and physical properties. The role of beneficial soil microorganisms in sustainable productivity has been well construed. Some plant bacteria referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can contribute to improve plant growth, nutrient uptake and microbial diversity when inoculated to plants. Term PGPR was initially used to describe strains of naturally occurring non-symbiotic soil bacteria have the ability to colonize plant roots and stimulate plant growth PGPR activity has been reported in strains belonging to several other genera, such as Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Arthrobacter Bacillus, Burkhokderia, Methylobacterium, and Pseudomonas etc. PGPR stimulate plant growth directly either by synthesizing hormones such as indole acetic acid or by promoting nutrition, for example, by phosphate solubilization or more generally by accelerating mineralization processes. They can also stimulate growth indirectly, acting as biocontrol agents by protecting the plant against soil borne fungal pathogens or deleterious bacteria. Present review focuses on some recent developments to evolve strategies for better biotechnological exploitation of PGPR's.
Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum MN 110 were supplied with nutrient solutions containing 1.0, 0.25 and 0.05 mM-P to characterize the effect of external-P supply on the phosphorus status of nodules and on the P-uptake system of isolated bacteroids from nodules. After 48 days of growth, whole plant dry mass in the 0.25 and 0.05 mM-P treatments decreased significantly. The Pi concentrations in nodules were 4.1, 2.5 and 2.0 mM for 1.0, 0.25 and 0.05 mM-P treatments, respectively. The external-P supply did not significantly affect the distribution of phosphorus among inorganic phosphate(Pi), soluble organicphosphorus(SOP) and insoluble organic-phosphorus(IOP) fractions in nodules. The Pi concentrations in young leaves of 0.25 and 0.05 mM-P plants were 33% and 20%, respectively, of those in young leaves of 1.0 mM-P plants and Pi concentrations in old leaves were only 16% and 7%, respectively, of those in old leaves of 7.0 mM-P plants. Phosphorus deficiency decreased the percentage of total leaf phosphorus in the Pi fraction and increased the percentage of total leaf phosphorus in the IOP fraction. The bacteroid number ranged from 0.87 to 1.30×10^(11) per GFW nodule regardless of external-F supply to the host plants and plant age. The P-uptake rates were the same (15-16 pmoles /min./l0^8 bacteroids) for the bacteroids isolated from nodules of 1.0 mM-P and 0.05 mM-P plants. These results indicate that Pi concentrations in nodules of phosphorus-deficient plants are sufficient for proliferation of bacteroids and that the P-uptake system of bacteroids is in a repressed state even when host plant growth is severely restricted by phosphorus-deficiency stress.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of phosphorus deficiency on nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis of nitrogen fixing soybean plant under CO₂ enrichment condition. The soybean plants(Glycine max [L.] Merr.) inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum MN 110 were grown with P-stressed(0.05 mM-P) and control(1 mM-P) treatment under control(400 ㎕/L CO₂) and enrichment(800 ㎕/L CO₂) enviromental condition in the phytotron equipped with high density lamp(1000 μEm ^(-2)S^(-1)) and 28/22℃ temperature cycle for 35 days after transplanting(DAT). At 35 DAT, phosphorus deficiency decreased total dry mass by 64% in CO₂ enrichment condition, and 51% in control CO₂ condition. Total leaf area was reduced significantly by phosphorus deficiency in control and enriched COL condition but specific leaf weight was increased by P deficiency. Phosphorus deficiency significantly reduced photosynthetic rate(carbon exchange rate) and internal CO₂ concentration in leaf in both CO₂ treatments, but the degree of stress was more severe under CO₂ enrichment condition than under control CO₂ environmental condition. In phosphorus sufficient plants, CO₂ enrichment increased nodule fresh weight and total nitrogenase activity(acetylene reduction) of nodule by 30% and 41% respectively, but specific nitrogenase activity of nodule and nodule fresh weight was not affected by CO₂ enrichment in phosphorus deficient plant at 35 DAT. Total nitrogen concentrations in stem, root and nodule tissue were significantly higher in phosphorus sufficient plant grown under CO₂ enrichment, but nitrogen concentration in leaf was reduced by 30% under CO₂ enrichment. These results indicate that increasing CO₂ concentration does not affect plant growth under phosphorus deficient condition and phosphorus stress might inhibit carbohydrate utilization in whole plant and that CO₂ enrichment could not increase nodule formation and functioning under phosphorus deficient conditions and phosphorus has more important roles in nodule growth and functioning under CO₂ enrichment environments than under ambient condition.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of Chungkuk Jang added-diets on reducing cadmium toxiclt in rats (Sprague-Dalvley, ♂, 125 58±4.04g) used as experimental groups. There are six experimental groups, a normal group(Tn), a cadmium treatment group(control group Tc), four cadmium and Chungkuk Jang (0.25%, 0 50%, 1 00%, and 1 50%; T_1 T_2, T_3, and T_4) treatment groups which received different dietary feeding for 8 weeks each The results are as follows. 1 The amount of food intake at Chungkuk Jang mixed group(T_1, -T_2) was 3 5% greater than at the Tc group For the group fed Chungkuk Jang the average of weight gain was 4.42g/day, which showed higher value(2.79%) than the Tc(4 30g/day) group. The food efficency rate of intake Chungkuk Jang group (5.02) was a little higher without significance than that of the Tn(4 91) and Tc(4 99) groups. 2. The amount of water intake was the highest in the Tn(32.44?/day) group and 30.14% greater than that of the Tc(21.66?/day) group. For the water intake (T_3) among Chungkuk Jang added-diet groups showed the highest value(22.78?/day) relatively Cadmium intake of each group was in the range of 1.94 to 2.27 ppm and the T_3 group showed the highest cadmium intake. For the growth rate the Tc group was 7.62% lower than Tn group but the Chungkuk jang fed group resulted in a reduced fashion-about 3% in the growth process against the Tn group 3 There was no significant weight gain or loss of the organ and bone of rats among the experimental groups but in the case of liver and kidney the T_3 (8.59%. 12 36%) was higher than the Tc group 4 Cadmium accumulation was high to low in order of liver > kidney > spleen > heart > lung > testicle > brain > femoral muscle > femur >(T_1, T_2, T_3, and T_4). tibia > blood. The 70% accumulation rate was showed in liver (33 2%), kidney (31.25) and spleen (6 1%). The contents of cadmium in tissue and body-hair in the Chungkuk Jang intake groups(T_1, T_2, T_3, and T_4) were lower than in the Tc group. The chungkuk Jang added-diet groups (T_3, and T_4) showed low levels of cadmium accumulation