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Peanut presscake powder with 1% different starch sources (tapioca, corn, potato) was used for preparation of Oncom and inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 30℃ for 48 hours. During incubation, it was analyzed every 12 hours for the determination of moisture, reducing sugar, soluble sugar, total sugar, crude lipid, pH, crude protein, soluble nitrogen and total amino acids, and, for mineral determination, final product was used. Oncom prepared with peanut presscake as control (group Ⅰ), 1% tapioca (group Ⅱ), 1% corn starch (group Ⅲ) and 1% potato starch (group Ⅳ) added to peanut presscake were determined. The results of 48 hours incubation product were as follows : the moisture content for group Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ were 55.84, 53.50, 54.47 and 58.86 (wt%), respectively and its content was increased compared with unfermented peanut presscake. Reducing sugar content were 0.98, 1.06, 0.78 and 0.60(wt%), respectively and soluble sugar content were 1.06, 0.89, 1.05 and 0.99(wt%), respectively and it was increased slightly compared with unfermented peanut presscake. Total sugar content were 5.01, 4.54, 2.66 and 5.16(wt%), respectively and it was decreased greatly compared with unfermented one. Crude lipid content were 7.24, 7.24, 7.08 and 6.94(wt%), respectively and it was decreased slightly. The value of pH were 6.38, 6.31, 6.20 and 6.22, respectively and it was increased compared with unfermented one. The crude protein content were 5.25, 4.97, 5.99 and 5.31(wt%), respectively and it was almost same as unfermented one. The soluble nitrogen content were 26.0, 23.0, 25.0 and 20.0(mg%), respectively and it was increased almost 7 times. Total amino acids content were 1404.0, 1468.4, 1342.4 and 1377.4(mg%), respectively and it was increased very slightly. The minerals (K, Na, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn) contents were determinted. The content of total sugar, K, Na, Mg, Mn were higher in Ⅳ group than any other groups. The content of reducing sugar, crude lipid, total amino acids were higher in Ⅱ group than any other groups. The content of soluble sugar, crude lipid, soluble nitrogen were higher in Ⅰ group than other groups and the content of crude protein in group Ⅲ were higher than other groups.
A potent intracellular-lipid-producing yeast, Rhodatorula glutinis var. glutinis SW-17, was screened out from a variety of arable soils, compost heaps, and fodders, and two strains of excellent extracellular-lipid-producing yeasts, Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis SW-5 and Rhodotorula graminis SW-54, were screened out from the surface of many species of leaves. And then the intra- and extra-cellular Lipid productions by those Rhodotorula yeasts were studied. The results were as follows: 1. During the shaking culture of 8 days at 24℃, both the intra- and extra-cellular lipid accumulation started almost at the stationary phase of growth, when the nitrogen source in the medium was a little more than half used up. The intracellular lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis SW-17 reached 58.42% (w/w) of dried yeast, and the extracellular lipid production by Rhodotorula graminis SW-54 amounted to 2.628 per liter of the medium. 2. After the carbon and nitrogen sources in the medium were almost consumed, if the yeasts were shake-cultured further in a state of starvation, the yeast cells re-utilized the already produced intro- and extra-cellular lipids and the lipids completely disappeared in the medium in about 90 days. 3. The relative concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources in the media greatly influenced both the intra- and extra-cellular lipid production. When the nitrogen source in; the medium was almost used up for the growth of yeast, and excess carbon sources. were still available, the lipid production vigorously proceeded. As long as the nitrogen source concentration in the medium was high, the lipid production was greatly suppressed. 4. The optimum pH for both the intra- and extra-cellular lipid production by those yeasts was pH 5.0-6.0. 5. The fatty acid components of the intracehular lipid of Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis SW-17 were myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The largest components of the fatty acids were palmitic acid equivalent to 30-45% of the whole fatty acids and oleic acid equivalent to 35-50%. 6. The fatty acid components of the extracellular lipid of Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis SW-5 and Rhodotorula graminis SW-54 were myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, 3-D-hydroxypalmitic, and 3-D-hydroxystearic acids. The largest components of the fatty acids were 3-D-hydroxypalmitic acid equivalent to 22-25% of the acids and 3-D-hydroxystearic acid equivalent to 13-17%. 7. The polyol component of the intracellular lipids was only glycerol, whereas the polyols of extracellular lipids were glycerol, mannitol, xylitol and arabitol.
In this paper, we propose a procedure to build a prediction interval of the sum of dependent binary random variables over a graph to account for the dependence among binary variables. Our main interest is to find a prediction interval of the weighted sum of dependent binary random variables indexed by a graph. This problem is motivated by the prediction problem of various elections including Korean National Assembly and US presidential election. Traditional and popular approaches to construct the prediction interval of the seats won by major parties are normal approximation by the CLT and Monte Carlo method by generating many independent Bernoulli random variables assuming that those binary random variables are independent and the success probabilities are known constants. In this paper, we propose a procedure to build a prediction interval of the sum of dependent binary random variables over a graph to account for the dependence among binary variables. Our main interest is to find a prediction interval of the weighted sum of dependent binary random variables indexed by a graph. This problem is motivated by the prediction problem of various elections including Korean National Assembly and US presidential election. Traditional and popular approaches to construct the prediction interval of the seats won by major parties are normal approximation by the CLT and Monte Carlo method by generating many independent Bernoulli random variables assuming that those binary random variables are independent and the success probabilities are known constants. However, in practice, the survey results (also the exit polls) on the election are random and hardly independent to each other. They are more often spatially correlated random variables. To take this into account, we suggest a spatial auto-regressive (AR) model for the surveyed success probabilities, and propose a residual based bootstrap procedure to construct the prediction interval of the sum of the binary outcomes. Finally, we apply the procedure to building the prediction intervals of the number of legislative seats won by each party from the exit poll data in the 19th and 20th Korea National Assembly elections.
A laboratory study was made of liming on the extractability of phosphate added to the uncultivated acid soils differing in clay content. The experiments were conducted with different rates of calcium carbonate and triple superphosphate at field capacity and 50% field capacity. The concentration of extractable phosphate was greatly reduced by simultaneous addition of calcium carbonate in the loam soil. W hen samples of the loam soil were preincubated for ranging from 0 to 50 days in the presence of calcium carbonate prior to phosphate application, the extractable phosphate concentration increased with preincubation time, and more phosphate was extracted from the soil maintained at 50% field capacity during the incubation. However, the extractable phosphate concentration in the sandyloam soil did not change with preincubation time and was not affected by moisture status. It may be concluded that the extractability of added phosphate was influenced by not only liming time but physical properties of soil.
달걀과 우유 알레르기를 억제하는 항알레르기 인자를 검색하고자 114종의 한약재를 가지고 Guinea pig를 이용한 PCA inhibition실험결과 다음과 같은 결론를 얻었다. 1. 반점형성이 미약하여 저해작용이 강하게 일어나고 있는 것으로 나타난 한약재는 10가지로 두충, 제조, 보골지, 구기자, 권백, 하고초, 쇄양, 산수유 등이었고 그 다음으로 저해효과가 있는 것은 12가지로 부자, 측백염, 백굴채, 관중, 여정실, 익지인, 고삼, 조구등, 오매, 밀몽화, 지모, 백출 등이었다. 2. 항알레르기 인자로 검색된 한약재중 포공영과 지골피를 사장하여 active anaphylaxis실험을 행한 결과 이들 약재는 anaphylactic shock의 유발을 방지하는데 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 4주동안 우유와 달걀액을 경구투여 했을 때 대조군에 비하여 한약재 추출액을 먹은 group에서는 anaphylactic shock를 유발하지 않았다. The presence of antiallergenicity was screened among the medicinal herbs by use of the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis(PCA). Strongly inhibiting herb samples indicated faint color spot in PCA test as allergenicity which were 10 herbs such as Eucommiae Cortex, Holotrichia, Psoraliae Semen, Cynorii Caulis, Corni Fructus, Taraxaci Herba, Lycii cortex Radicis, Lycii Fructus, Selaginelliae Folium, Prunellae Herba and moderatel inhibited samples were 12 herbs including Aconiti Tuber, Chelidonii Herba, Bioyae Orientalisfolium, Filicis Rhizoma, Ligustri Fructus, Amori Amari fructus, Sophorae Radix, Rhynchophylla Ramulusi, Mune Fructus praeparatus, Brddleiae Flos, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephlae rhizoma among the 114 medicinal herbs. The selected antiallergic herbs Taraxaci Herba and Lycii cortex Radicis were effective to prevent anaphylactic shock in the active anaphylaxis test. As compared with the control group, there are no anaphylactic shock in the herb-extract feeding group when milk and egg was adminstrated orally during 4 weeks.