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This study analyzed the effects of R&D cost on corporate performance of the companies on KOSDAQ market venture business division. Our results are as follows. First, both R&D cost and R&D intensity of KOSDAQ listed venture companies had significant negative effects on corporate performance. The reason why research and development costs of KOSDAQ market venture companies show negative relationship is that they often give up short-term profitability while focusing on R&D as a characteristic of venture company. Therefore, due to the nature of R&D intensive industry, the degree of R&D costs on sales would be expected to affect long-term performance. Second, the ownership is significantly positive to the corporate performance. Unlike previous studies, KOSDAQ companies often have a professional founder working on the management front, which seems to be due to less agent problems, which supports the consensus hypothesis. Third, the leverage and the sales growth have negative and postive effects on the company performance, respectively. These results can be interpreted as the increasing cost or investment on R&D deteriorates the profitability of the company, but the sales control the level of R&D expenditure and contribute to the profitability of the company
The factor proportions theory of Heckscher-Ohlin has been regarded as the most effective trade theory in explaining the international trade structure. However, this theory has been refutede by many empirical tests and, as a result, many trade theories have been developed to explain the trade structure. They include theories of technology gap, economies of scale, product life cycle, and skill intensity. This study is purposed to test the applicability of factor proportion, technology gap, and skill intensity theoryes in case of the manufacturing sector in Korea. For that purpose this study supposes that the exports (imports) of manufacturing sector of Korea consist of relatively labor-intenstive, research & development-intensive, skill-intensive products(less capital-intensive, less R & D-intensive, and less skill-intensive products). Also it is supposed that the export coefficents(=exports/production) [or import coefficients (=imports/total supply)] of each manufactuting sector have the negative (or positive) correlation with its factor intensity, research & development itensity, and skill intensity. This study tested the above hypotheses corresponding to the three trade theoryies with respect to the eight years of 1970, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1985, and 1987, and made the comparisons of the industry characteristics between exporting and importing products along with the review of the relationships between the comparative advantages and industry characteristics ofmanufacturing sector. Regression analyses are used to test these hypothese. In summarizing the test results, first, it was revealed through the comparisons of the industry characteristics, that the importing products in manufacturing sector were hagher in the factor intensity, the T*D intensity, and the skill intensity than the exporting products. Second, it was showed through the review of the relationships between the export coefficients and isdustry characteristics in each manufacturing sector, that the export coefficients had the negative correlation with the factor intensity and skill intensity. By the way it was found out through the analyses of correlation and regression, that the skill intensity theory is the most effective among the three trade theories in explainging the trade struchture of manufacturing sector in case of Korea, followed by the factor proportion theory. And also it was revealed that the trade structure of manufacturing sector in Korea was transformed into the more skilled labor-intensive after 1978. Third, it was found by the analyses on the correlation between the improt coefficients and industry characteristics in each manufacturing sector, that the import coefficients had the positive correlation with the R & D intensity. It means that the technology gap theory was the most effective in explaining the import structure. But it was showed that the confidence level of the correlation coefficients and the determination coeffiients, were very low compared with the export coefficient cases. This fact could be explained by the fact that the international specialization based on the principles of comparative advantage was not reflected in the imports of korea due to the various restrints. Considering the above all results, ths study can conclude as follows: First, the theories of the skill intensity and the factor proportions are the most effective in explaining the export structure of the manufacturing sector, while in case of import, the technology gap theory is the most effective; Second, in expaining the trade structure the vaildity of trade theories is rlatiely lower in the case of import than of export; and Third, the trade theories developed to explain the manufacturing trade structure of the developed economies, could not be directly applied to explain the trade structure of such developing countries as Korea.
Acoustic propagation in shallow water with changing environments is a major concern of navy. Temporal and spatial variability of acoustic propagation in the northern East China Sea (ECS) is studied, using the 11 years hydrographic data and the Bellhop acoustic model. Acoustic propagation in the northern ECS is highly variable due to extensive interaction of various ocean currents and boundaries. Seasonal variations of transmission loss (TL) with various source depths are highly affected by sharp gradient of sound speed and bottoms interaction. Especially, various bottom sediment types lead to severely degrading a waterborne propagation with bottom loss. In particular, the highly increased TL near the ocean front depends on the source position, and the direction of sound propagation.