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In today's information industry it is no exaggeration to say that the level of quality in the visual communicative media would be heavily influenced by the development of the typographic field within their own cultural sphere. Despite the relatively early development of their unique printing technique, Korean contemporary typography lacks the kind of development as seen in other fields. University education appears to be one of the main reasons of this "underdevelopment" of contemporary typrography. Typographic course is normally not included in the university visual communication design or related curricula and this clearly demonstrate that universities do not appear to recognize the importance of typography. This paper is intended to look at the typography education in American universities which followed the Modern Typography Movement of the western world. Out of 249 universities which have design departments from [INDEX OF MAJORS 1989/90] 48 universities were initially selected with the assitance from a Professor at Syracuse University and asked to send their course catalogs and syllabi. 28 universities replied but the materials from 23 universities were proper to survey and analyzed as follows. Typographic courses are offered to students in the sophomore and junior year with very high specific gravity in the curricula of major American schools of visual communication design or graphic design. The average ratio of typographic courses to all the major courses in each year is 23.2% in the sophomore, 25.7% in the junior and 13.4% in the senior year. Typographic courses are divided into three groups of different name which are the ones of direct name, indirect name and inclusive name. The courses of direct name which there are "typography" or "typographic" on these names have genuine typographic contents. And the ones of indirect name related indirectly to typography such as "type design", "letterform" or publication design" and so on have more specified contents concerned with their names. On the contents in the courses of inclusive name as some courses as "basic graphic design" or "design skills and processes", typography is particulary stressed on as basic course of or as application one to graphic design and these can not be differentiated by their names but by their contents. Typographic courses are listed on the graphic design major curricula with relatively high importance as 20.8% as the average ratio which there are 12.5% of the courses of direct name, 5.6% of indirect name and 2.6% of inclusive name. In most of American schools, the average contents in the instruction of typographic courses are both the understanding and use of typography. Especially the emphasis is placed on the technical skills from the relating industry, like hand and photo composition and word, page processing computer software, printing, production and so on in typographic courses. For the understanding of typography, students are introduced to the terminology, history and technical aspects such as type specification and selection, type composition and computer software. For the use of typography, they are taught to technical approach, including proportion, grid, layout, printing process, and to communicative and expressive approach, like visual hierachy, typographic structure, the relation of typeface, legibility, readability and character recognition. Finally students are encouraged to find their own style and to develop the experimental typographic expression. Many American visual communication design or graphic design schools offer typographic instruction at the courses of direct or indirect name listed in their curricula of major. Although other schools do not list typographic courses, they certainly offer instruction related to typography even at the courses of inclusive name. It does appear as a result of this research that all the American schools recognize typography as one of the elements composing of visual communication design or graphic design, not as the independant area in that major, and with such recognition, they offer instruction in typography.
Background and Objectives:Hyper-responsivenes to nonspecific stimuli is a characteristic finding of all allergic diseases. It the whole mechanism has not been clearly established. We aimed to understand the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expresion in nasal hyper-responsivenes of rhinosinusitis. Materials and Method:1) To develop a platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced rhinosinusitis rat model, 50 μl of 16 μg/ml PAF was applied into the nose of rats. At days 1, 3 and 5, the rats were killed. 2) μl of 10 μM capsaicin was applied intranasaly and the amount of microvascular leakage in the nasal mucosa was measured with Evans blue asay at days 1, 3 and 5 in the rhinosinusitis model and the control rats. 3) To examine the efect of iNOS, 75 mg/kg of aminoguanidine was pretreated systemicaly 1 hour before the application of capsaicin. 4) To localize the expresion of iNOS, immunohistochemical staining was performed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method with an anti-iNOS antibody. Results:Induction of rhino-ium, varied according to the time interval, were observed. A significant enhancement of microvascular leakage was clearly demon-strated by topicaly applied capsaicin, which was completely blocked by aminoguanidine, the iNOS inhibitor in the PAF-induced rhinosinusitis. The expression of iNOS was localized in the inflamatory cells infiltrated in the mucosa. Conclusion:The expression of iNOS in the inflamatory cells as well as epithelial damage related to eosinophil infiltration may cause nasal hyper-responsivenes. (Korean J Otolaryngol 203 ;46 :35-41)
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is an acute, life-threatening event. The blood-gas barrier must be very thin to allow gas exchange and is therefore subjected to high mechanical stresses when the capillary pressure rises. In general anesthesia, inhaled gases cause high mechanical stresses, and thus DAH occurs under certain conditions. We describe a case of inferred postoperative DAH. A 25-year-old man had an acute episode after undergoing a tonsillectomy for snoring. During surgery, no problems occurred and no marked bleeding was observed. After removal of the endotracheal tube, however, the patient had severe cough and hemoptysis. The patient was treated with an antihemorrhagic agent and antibiotics. He recovered after 1 week. Chronic snoring likely caused the alveolar damage in this patient and intubation led to DAH. The patient presented with a benign course that regressed spontaneously with medical intervention.
Carcinoma showing tymus-like diferentiation (CASTLE)and surounding soft tisue, or soft tissue of the neck. It originates from ectopic thymus or branchial pouch remnants. The histolo-gic finding shows that the tumor is divided into lobules of variable size and shape, cord with thin and thick fibrous septa, which are infiltrated by lymphocytes and plasma cells. Tumor cells consist of large vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant cyto-lymphoepithelioma of thymus. We report a case of CASTLE that we treated by surgery and radiation therapy.
In this paper, we propose an intelligent situation recognition model by collecting andanalyzing multiple sensor signals. Multiple sensor signals are collected for fixed time window. Atraining set of collected sensor data for each situation is provided to K2-learning algorithm to generateBayesian networks representing causal relationship between sensors for the situation. Statisticalcharacteristics of sensor values and topological characteristics of generated graphs are learned for eachsituation. A neural network is designed to classify the current situation based on the extracted featuresfrom collected multiple sensor values. The proposed method is implemented and tested with UCImachine learning repository data.
Penetrating neck injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergent management because of the presence of vital structures in the neck. Penetrating vascular trauma to zone I and III of the neck is potentially life-threatening. An accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical intervention are critical to the successful outcome of penetrating trauma in the neck. We experienced some cases with externally penetrating injuries in neck zone II in which the patients were confirmed to have the presence of large vessel injuries in neck zones I and III. Here we report on the endovascular stent techniques used in two cases to address penetrating carotid artery injuries and review the literature.