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The Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP) is an important topic in the study of traveling salesman problem and stochastic routing problem. The goal of PTSP is to find a priori tour visiting all customers with a minimum expected length, which sim
일반적으로 열차 제동을 위한 제동력은 압축공기를 활용하여 제공된다. 열차에 상황별로 적절 제동력을 가하기 위해 사용하는 압력밸브 시스템은 복잡한 유동 회로를 가진다. 이를 일반적인 기계가공으로 제작 시, 유로형상 설계에 제약이 있는 반면, 3D 프린팅 기법으로 제작시 유동 효율을 증대할 수 있는 유로형상 제작이 가능하다. 따라서 이번 연구에서는 기존의 제작 방식으로 유로를 제작하는 경우와, 3D프린팅의 장점을 살려, 자유로운 형상의 유로를 제작하는 경우를 비교하여, 압력밸브 시스템 내의 압축공기 유동의 현상을 해석적으로 분석하였다. 해석을 위한 조건으로는, 유로 방향이 바뀔 때 유로의 곡률 크기, 유로의 직경, 입구 및 저장소 압력의 크기, 그리고 압축공기의 초기 온도로 구분하였다. 압력손실의 최소화 및 유동 특성의 균일성이 제동 효율 개선에 영향을 주는 요인이므로, 수치해석을 통한 연구를 통해 일반적인 기계가공을 통한 직각 유로 형상보다는 3D 프린팅을 통한 곡률 유로의 경우가 제동효율 개선에 유리함을 확인하였다. The braking force for a train is generally provided by compressed air. The pressure valve system that is used to apply appropriate braking forces to trains has a complex flow circuit. It is possible to make a channel shape that can increase the flow efficiency by 3D printing. There are restrictions on the flow shape design when using general machining. Therefore, in this study, the compressed air flow was analyzed in a pressure valve system by comparing flow paths made with conventional manufacturing methods and 3D printing. An analysis was done to examine the curvature magnitude of the flow path, the diameter of the flow path, the magnitude of the inlet and reservoir pressure, and the initial temperature of the compressed air when the flow direction changes. The minimization of pressure loss and the uniformity of the flow characteristics influenced the braking efficiency. The curvilinear flow path made through 3D printing was advantageous for improving the braking efficiency compared to the rectangular shape manufactured by general machining.
The arguments exist that private health insurance(PHI) policy holders tend to use the health care services more than non-policy holders due to their little out-of-pocket spending, resulting in the adverse effects on the finances of National Health Insurance. This study aims to increase the objective understanding of the issue and to draw a direction of further research, by reviewing the articles, reports and statistics which examined the effects of purchasing PHI policies on health care utilization. Significant differences in healthcare utilization, except for the very partial increase of utilization in outpatient settings, have been not found. The similar trends of the results have existed in a few previous studies which tried to control the endogeneity of medical use and health insurance with latent variables which affect the decision on medical use and health insurance. However, we can not exclude the potential change of healthcare utilization patterns because the portion of the insured of indemnity PHI is becoming rapidly larger in the market. For further research, we should try to obtain the objective information of subjects' past medical history, health status, health related behavior, and income affecting purchase of PHI and utilization of healthcare services. And the efforts of controlling the endogeneity of medical use and health insurance with latent variables which affect the decision on medical use and health insurance, are very considerable.
Objective : This study was carried out to investigate the effects of oral administration of Hyeungbangjihwang-tang (HBJHT) on the liver cirrhosis of rats induced by Carbon tetrachloride for 10 weeks. Method : The histopathological changes were observed. The HBJHT extracts were daily dosed at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg for 12 weeks. Results : Severe hepatocellular necrosis and ballooning, hyperplasia of connective tissue, subdued reduction of hepatic lobule, and hyperplasia of bile duct in portal triad were dramatically decreased in the HBJHT-treated group compared to that of the Carbon tetrachloride-treated control group in histopathological observation. The diameter of hepatic lobules was significantly enlarged in the HBJHT-treated group compared to that of the Carbon tetrachloride-treated control group, and the amounts of connective tissue, degenerative cells and bile ducts were significantly and dose-dependently decreased. Conclusion : It is concluded that HBJHT has a significant recovering effect on the liver of rats induced by carbon tetrachloride.
Objective: The purpose of this clinical trial is to examine the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture on liver cirrhosis patients suffering from muscle cramps. Methods: A total of 14 liver cirrhosis patients with muscle cramps were treated by electroacupuncture three times a week for four weeks (12 times total). The electrical stimulation was a frequency of 100 Hz. Evaluation of the muscle cramps was measured by a questionnaire of subjective symptoms. The patients’ condition was evaluated four times over a period of eight weeks. We also assessed the deterioration of liver disease using the Child-Pugh score and blood tests. Results: This study proves that four weeks of electroacupuncture treatment is effective in reducing the frequency of muscle cramps and that the effects of electroacupuncture treatment lasted during another four-week follow-up period after treatment. Conclusions: This study suggests that electroacupuncture treatment is beneficial for improving muscle cramps in liver cirrhosis patients (p=0.000). Electroacupuncture is thought to be a safe treatment for liver cirrhosis patients with muscle cramps without contributing to the worsening of liver function. Further study with a larger sample size is needed to confirm our findings.