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        • KCI등재

          의학에서 바라보는 죽음

          김중곤 가톨릭생명윤리연구소 2012 인격주의 생명윤리 Vol.2 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        • Lipid A의 자극에 의해 마우스 대식세포에서 생성된 내인성 Interferon α/β에 의한 마우스 대식세포의 식작용의 항진

          김중곤 大韓免疫學會 1993 大韓免疫學會誌 Vol.15 No.-

          Previous study has demonstrated that lipid A could markedly enhance the FcR-dependent phagocytic activity of mouse macrophages. In this report, the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of phagocytic activity of lipid A -stimulated macrophages was elucidated. Macrophages at the higher density showed higher phagocytic activity compared to those at the lower density, indicating that the cytokine(s) produced by macrophages should be involved in up-regulating the phagocytosis. Studies with the monokines revealed that IL-1 did not show any significant effect on the phagocytosis, and TNF increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages at the high concentration but slightly increased at low concentration. IFN-a/Q enhanced the phagocytic activity. Addition of anti-IFN-a/19 antibody markedly reduced the phagocytic activity of unstimulated macrophages as well as lipid A-stimulated macrophages. These findings indicate that endogenous IFN-a//3 produced by lipid A-stimulated macrophages enhanced phagocytic activity of mouse macrophage through autostimulatory effect.

        • KCI우수등재
        • KCI등재

          Comparative Study on Ethanol Production with Pentose and/or Hexose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or Pichia stipitis

          김중곤,안정훈,Kim, Jung-Gon,Ahn, Jung-Hoon Korean Society of Life Science 2011 생명과학회지 Vol.21 No.3

          포도당과 자일로스는 자연계에서 가장 풍부한 물질이며 이들은 효모에 의해 에탄올로 전환될 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 Saccharomyces cerevisiae와 Pichia stipitis을 이용하여 분리배양, 공동배양 그리고 순차배양 등의 조합을 통해 가장 효과적인 발효의 방법을 찾고자 하였다. 분리배양에서 S. cerevisiae은 29.4 g/l의 포도당을 발효하여 14.5 g/l의 에탄올을 생산한 반면에 자일로스를 이용하지 못했다. 그렇지만 P. stipitis은 포도당뿐만 아니라 자일로스도 분해하여 각각 포도당 29.4 g/l로부터 11.9 g/l의 에탄올을, 자일로스 29.0 g/l로부터 11.6 g/l의 에탄올을 생산하였다. 포도당과 자일로스 혼합배양에서, S. cerevisiae은 13.4 g/l의 에탄올을 생산한 반면에 P. stipitis은 21.1 g/l의 에탄올을 생산하였다. 공동배양과 순차배양에서, 공동배양이 18.6 g/l, 순차배양이 12.4 g/l의 에탄올을 생산하여 공동배양이 더 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 두 효모의 생장에서 영양분의 효과를 보기 위해 yeast nitrogen base (YNB)을 S. cerevisiae가 포도당을 소모한 시점에 첨가하니 자일로스의 소비량과 미생물의 성장이 증가하였고 54.6 g/l의 당 혼합배양액에서 22.5 g/l의 에탄올을 생산하여 0.41 g/g의 수득율을 나타내었다. Glucose and xylose are the most abundant materials in nature which can be used to produce ethanol by yeast fermentation. Three combinations of cultivation with glucose and xylose were carried out; separated, co-culture, and sequential fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. In the separated fermentation, S. cerevisiae fermented glucose to produce 14.5 g/l ethanol from 29.4 g/l glucose but hardly used xylose. However, P. stipitis utilized not only glucose but also xylose to produce ethanol 11.9 g/l and 11.6 g/l from 29.4 g/l glucose and 29.0 g/l xylose, respectively. In the mixture of glucose and xylose, P. stipitis fermented both sugars, producing 21.1 g/l ethanol while S. cerevisiae fermented only glucose, producing 13.4 g/l ethanol. In the co-culture and sequential fermentation, the co-culture showed more efficient ethanol productivity with 18.6 g/l ethanol than the sequential fermentation with 12.4 g/l ethanol. To investigate the effect of nutrients in the growth of microorganisms and ethanol production, yeast nitrogen base (YNB) was used in the sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis. YNB supplemented some nutrients which S. cerevisiae used up in the broth and the culture showed increased growth rate, increased consumption of xylose, and increased ethanol productivity producing 22.5 g/l ethanol from 54.6 g/l sugar with a yield of 0.41 g/g.

        • 젖소분뇨 퇴비화에 대한 부숙퇴비 혼합 효과

          김중곤,곽정훈,정광화,한덕우,유병기,안희권,라창식,Kim, Jung Kon,Kwag, Jung-Hoon,Jeong, Kwang-Hwa,Han, Deug-Woo,Yu, Byeong-kee,Ahn, Hee-kwon,Ra, Chang-Six 한국축산환경학회 2015 한국축산시설환경학회지 Vol.21 No.3

          According to the volumetric mixing rate of dairy cow manure (DCM) and moisture control materials such as decomposed manure (DM) and sawdust (S), 6 reactors (DCM only (R1), DCM : DM = 1:1 (R2), DCM : DM = 1.5:0.5 (R3), DCM : DM = 0.5:1.5 (R4), DCM : DM:S = 1:0.5:0.5 (R5) and DCM : S = 1:1 (R6)) were used for composting of dairy cow manure. Among the composting reactors, composting reactor of R5 was shown the highest temperature of the compost as a $66^{\circ}C$ during composting period. After 3 weeks composting, moisture content of R5 and R6 were 51% and 51.3%, respectively. These values were satisfied with the moisture content standard of livestock manure compost of Korea. We concluded that decomposed manure may be a good moisture control material for dairy cow manure composting when it is used in mixture with sawdust. The optimum volumetric mixing ratio of dairy cow manure and moisture control materials was 50% of livestock manure, 25% of decomposed manure and 25% of sawdust.

        • 피날레의 특성과 그 응용방법

          김중곤 한국음악학회 2000 한국음악학회논문집 음악연구 Vol.21 No.1

          This thesis is dealt Finale for Windows: the characteristics and its application. Finale is a powerful program for music transcription, notation, playback, and publishing. I examine the traits of the basic function and notation in Finale. There are several ways to get the notes into Finale. Simple Entry is the simplest way to get the notes into Finale. It is easy to use and does not require a MIDI Keyboard. To speed up, position the cursor at the pitch, and click on the measure while holding the number representing the duration. Speedy Entry is a much faster and more efficient method of music entry, particularly when used in conjunction with a synthesizer. There is an another way to type in music, using the letter keys to specify the pitch, and the number keys to specify the rhythms. To transcribe a live performance in real time, there are two tools: the Hyper Scribe Tool notates your performance as you play it; the Transcription Tool provides a sequencer-like window in which you can save and later reopen your performances, and apply a number of transcriptions. Its primary function is to record MIDI performances and convert them into standard notation. Also, Finale notates the sequencer's files, if they are saved as standard MIDI files. Finale offers two views of music: the Scroll View, where the music is a continuous horizontal band; the Page View lays out the music like a page of sheet music. Most of Finale's tools work equally well in either view. To get the lyrics, two ways are available: Type Into Score or Click Assignment. The first method assigns the lyrics as you enter them. The second method requires you to enter the lyrics first, then assigns the lyrics using the Click Assignment command. When you add chords and lyrics to the score, Finale remembers what note they are assigned to. When you move a note, the chord or lyric syllable moves with the notes. There are three ways to print the parts in Finale: Extract Parts, Special Part Extraction, and Print Parts. Extracting parts lets you create separate files for each part in your score. With the Mass Mover Tool, you can copy the source measure into the target. You can select a region using the Mass Mover Tool, then transform it with a Mass Edit command. Finale will let you edit the music in any way you can imagine: respace, transpose, change voicings, move notes, change durations, and change clefs and accidentals. I found some problems to operate the Korean lyrics in Finale. The Finale 3.x can be used in Hangul Windows 3.1 or Hangul Windows 95. But in Hangul Windows 95, I can not input Korean lyrics. But Print Music!, the more hany version of Finale is issued in March of 1999. If it is installed in Hangul Windows 95, Korean lyrics can be input normally using the Lyrics Tool.

        • KCI등재

          자가 면역

          김중곤 대한소아청소년과학회 2007 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.50 No.12

          Self/non-self discrimination and unresponsiveness to self is the fundamental properties of the immune system. Self-tolerance is a state in which the individual is incapable of developing an immune response to an individual's own antigens and it underlies the ability to remain tolerant of individual's own tissue components. Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the tolerant state. They can be broadly classified into two groups: central tolerance and peripheral tolerance. Several mechanisms exist, some of which are shared between T cells and B cells. In central tolerance, the recognition of self-antigen by lymphocytes in bone marrow or thymus during development is required, resulting in receptor editing (revision), clonal deletion, anergy or generation of regulatory T cells. Not all self-reactive B or T cells are centrally purged from the repertoire. Additional mechanisms of peripheral tolerance are required, such as anergy, suppression, deletion or clonal ignorance. Tolerance is antigen specific. Generating and maintaining the self-tolerance for T cells and B cells are complex. Failure of self-tolerance results in immune responses against self-antigens. Such reactions are called autoimmunity and may give rise to autoimmune diseases. Development of autoimmune disease is affected by properties of the genes of the individual and the environment, both infectious and non-infectious. The host's genes affect its susceptibility to autoimmunity and the environmental factors promote the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes, developing the autoimmunity. The changes in participating antigens (epitope spreading), cells, cytokines or other inflammatory mediators contribute to the progress from initial activation to a chronic state of autoimmune diseases.

        • KCI등재후보
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