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Purpose: This was to describe the emotions that patients face when diagnosed with cancer to know the problems and coping styles that cancer patients experience during the treatment. Method: The qualitative method was used for this study. The participants were 90 cancer patients at five general hospital in Pusan, Korea. Data were collected by interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire from November 2000 to June 2001, and were analyzed using the modified constant comparative method. Result: The most common emotions on the diagnosis of cancer were shock(36.7%), followed by despair(25.6%), acceptance(24.4%), denial(18.9%), complaint(16.7%), and fear(8.9%). The problems identified were the unpleasantness and physical discomfort related with the treatment(50.0%), the feelings of burden(41.1%), finance/occupation(38.8%), and fear of the future(26.6%). Coping styles to problems that the subjects have faced on the course of the treatment were compliance(36.6%), health care(31.1%), positive thinking(22.2%), despair/avoidance(15.5%), seeking social support(6.6%), information seeking(3.3%) and self-control(2.2%). Conclusion: It is very important to develop nursing interventions which can mitigate shock that patients experience, can help cancer patients to have hope for the future and to positively cope with cancer.
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The study performed to assess the medicine use in the elderly and to provide basic data for the education of medication for the elderly. The sample consisted of 128 voluntary participants who have lived in three homes for the aged in Dong Rae, Pusan city. The result of study was follows: 1. Among the participants, 85.2% was taking at least one type of medicine. The medicines most frequently used were analgesics(36%), digestants(13%) and antihypertensives(13%). The medicines taken 'very frequently, almost everyday' were analgesics(80%) and digestants (69.2%). 2. Eighty eight percent of the participants used Western medicines. However, only 37.6% of the users knew the names of the medicine. As for the number of the kinds of the medicines taken, 47.6% took 2-5 kinds of medicines,' 28.4% took 5-10 kinds of medicines: 12.8% took over 10 kinds of medicines. 3. Those who took medicines by doctor's order were 74.3% and 19.3% purchased medicines at the pharmarcy store by themselves. About half of the elderly obtained the information of medicine from friends and neighbors. In making decisions for dosage and method of taking drugs, 78% followed explanation from doctors or pharmacists. 4. Those 12% of the elderly experienced adverse effects of such drugs as analgesics, antihypertensives, antidiabetic oral agents.
Three kinds of chelate resins bearing iminodiacetic acid, diethanolamine or diethylenetriamine have been applied to selectively separate and recover one component in a mixture of heavy metals, Mo and W, where their chemical properties are very similar. The adsorption behavior of metal ions was investigated for each chelate resin under various experimental conditions such as time, pH, metal ion concentration by a batch experiment. The chelate resins complexed by Mo or W were characterized by FTIR and ¹H NMR. The metal uptake of each chelate resin decreased with increasing pH. The resins were found to selectively chelate MoO₄^2- over a pH range of 2∼6. The chelate resin with diethanolamine groups showed the maximum adsorption capacity for Mo and W over a pH range of 1∼6 among three resins used. However, the resin with iminodiacetic acid groups showed the best results to separate Mo and W selectively. The ¹H NMR study using the homogeneous analogue suggests the higher selectivity of iminodiacetic acid group toward Mo over W.
인조대리석은 천연대리석에 비해 우수한 외형, 높은 마감도, 고른 빛깔, 압력과 마모에 대한 우수한 저항성, 부식과 풍화에 대한 우수한 저항성 등의 장점을 가지고 있다. 그래서 인조대리석은 주방용 조리대, 욕실 세면대, 가구, 안내 데스크 등에 다양하게 사용되고 있다. 그러나 인조대리석을 자르고 마감하는 과정에서 많은 양의 폐기물들이 스크랩 또 는 분진의 형태로 발생한다. 고급스런 인테리어 재료의 수요의 증가에 따라 인조대리석으로부터의 폐기물은 증가하고 있다. 폐인조대리석은 분쇄, 열분해, 증류공정 등을 통하여 전자재료, 세라믹 등의 원료가 되는 산화알루미늄 및 인조 대리석의 원료가 되는 MMA로 재생이 가능하다. 폐인조대리석의 특성을 TGA/DSC 및 원소분석을 통해 그 특성을 분석하였다. 폐인조대리석을 분쇄 및 열분해하여 원 산화알루미늄을 얻었다. 본 연구에서는 원 산화알루미늄을 회수하는 공정의 최적화를 위해 Box-Behnken 실험계획법을 사용하였다. 원 산화알루미늄의 특성치는 색도 분석, 원소 분석 그 리고 표면적 등에 의하여 평가하였다. Compared with the natural marble, the artificial marble has the advantages of excellent appearance, high degree of finish, even color, fine pressure and wear resistance, bear erosion and weathering, etc. It can be widely used in kitchen countertops, bath vanity tops, table tops, furniture, reception desks, etc. However, large amounts of artificial marble waste such as scraps or dust have been generated from sawing and polishing processes in artificial marble industry. Waste from artificial marble industry is increasing according to demand magnification of luxurious interior material. Artificial marble wastes can be recycled as aluminum oxide used as raw materials in electronic materials, ceramics production, etc., and methyl methacrylate(MMA) which become a raw material of artificial marble by pulverization, pyrolysis and distillation processes, The characteristics of artificial marble wastes was analyzed by using TGA/DSC and element analysis, Crude aluminum oxide was obtained from artificial marble waste by pulverization and thermal decomposition under nitrogen atmosphere, In this work, Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the pyrolysis process, The characteristics of crude aluminum oxide was evaluated by chromaticity analysis, element analysis, and surface area.
The extract of Trichsanthes radix (TRE) is a complex of active principles prepared from the root of Trichosanthes Kirlowii, known component of which include saponin, trichsanthin, palmitic acid, lignoleic acid, cerotic acid, montamic acid, melissic acid and polysaccharides etc. The present study was carried out to explore effects of TRE and its fractions (TRE1-5, TRE-3BS, TRE-3-ES $ TRE-3-EP) on the isolated vascular smooth muscle. Norepinephrine-induced contraction of the isolated rabbit aorta were relaxed almost completely by TRE-3 (0.1mg/ml) or TRE-4 (0.5mg/ml), while no significant changes in vascular tension were produced following superfusion of the vascular preparations with TRE-1, TRE-2 or TRE-3 solutions. Subfractions of TRE-3 (TRE-3Bs, TRE-3-Es & TRE-3-Ep) also relaxed norepinephrine-precontracted rabbit and rat aortic rings. In the rat aortic preparations the vascular relaxant effect of TRE-3 and TRE-4 were not affected either by removal of the ensothelium or by methylene blue. High potassium (30 mM)induced contraction was almost completely relaxed by .01mg/ml TRE-3 in the isolated rat aorta, whereas approximately 70% of potassium-induced contraction was relaxed by 0.5mg/ml TRE-3 in the rabbit aortic preparation. In the rat aortic preparations pretreated with raynodine (3×10 M) and caffeine (2×10 M), vascular relaxing effect of TRE3-was markedly abolished. The results suggest that TRE relaxes the isolated rabbit and rat aortas by a mechanism that inhibit Ca release from the intracellular calcium storage sites.