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Following the development of the new P.S.S.C. physics course for high school and college, several new physics course for undergraduates were developed as follows: Berkeley Physics Course, MIT course, Cal. Tech. Introductory Physics Course, etc. Along with these new courses new physics laboratories have evolved. As a subsequent paper, therefore, we intend to make a brief review of general characteristics of the Berkeley Physics Laboratory Course developed by A.M. Portis in 1962, and discuss about several problems encountered in experiments contained in Part C of the course.
Oxygen-related precipitates and their effect on the resistivity shift phenomenon were investigated by four-point probe, photoluminescence, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and bevel polishing/preferential etching methods. For examination of the origin of new donors and their annihilation kinetics, carbon-lean Czochralski silicon wafers were annealed at 700℃, and using simulated MOS thermal cycles. The results show that platelike precipitates are the core of new donors, and that the annihilation kinetics of new donors can be elucidated on the basis of the transformation sequence of platelike precipitates into octahedral or polyhedral precipitates.
We fabricated the ceramic PLT tablet which was composed of 5, 10 and 15 mold lanthanum concentration and thin film PLT to develope pyroelectric materials, and investigated their characteristics. Using TG/DTA, we determined calcination and sintering temperature to sinter the PLT completely and to prevent volatilization of the Pb components. The calcination and sintering temperature were 850℃, 1150℃ respectively, end there was a lot of mass loss at higer sintering temperature. By measuring temperature-dielectric constant characteristics of ceramic tablet we investigated dielectric constant characteristics depends on La concentration. The Curie point of PLT with 5, 10 and 15 mol% lanthanum concentration were 330℃, 269℃ and 210℃ respectively. Using PLT cerarnie tablet we observed IR detection characteristics, and then deposited PLT thin film by rf magnetron sputtering. We verified that PLT thin film fabricated with completely sintered PLT target had the same structure to target by investigating lattice constant and optical transparency.
V-P-Pb critical temperature resistors(CTR) were fabricated, and their electrical characteristics and the optimum condition for heat treatment were investigated. The critical temperature range was between 60℃ and 70℃ and the resistance anomaly index of a fabricated CTR was about 2.8.
V-P-Mg critical temperature resistors(CTR) were fabricated, and their electrical characteristics and the optimum condition for heat treatment were investigated. The critical temperature range was between 60℃ and 70℃ and the resistance anomaly index of a fabricated CTR was about 2.8.
Objective: There are also few studies demonstrating the relationship between ossification of nuchal ligament (ONL) and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). We compared the prevalence, location, and type of OPLL between patients with ONL and matched patients without ONL.We also compared the bone mineral densities (BMDs) between the 2 groups. Methods: A total of 124 cervical ONL patients were enrolled in this study. The control group of 124 patients was matched with 124 patients with ONL by age and sex on a 1:1 basis to minimize confounding factors. We reviewed the prevalence, location, and type of OPLL in both groups. Results: The prevalence of OPLL was almost 2.5 times greater in patients with ONL than those without ONL. The mean value of BMD in patients with ONL was greater at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) than in patients without ONL. The mean T score of the lumbar spine was 0.25±1.68 in the patients with ONL and -0.73±1.64 in the patients without ONL. Conclusion: The prevalence of OPLL in patients with ONL was significantly higher than in patients without ONL. Because ONL is innocuous and may be seen more readily than OPLL on simple cervical radiographs, clinicians should consider the possibility of coexisting OPLL when ONL, especially extensive ONL, is detected in patients with neck pain, radiculopathy, or myelopathy, to facilitate proper treatment.
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The hierarchical cell structure consists of the macrocell and microcells to increase the system capacity and to achieve broad coverage. The hierarchical cell structure provides services for users in different mobility. In this paper, an analytical queueing model in mobile networks is proposed for the performance evaluation of the hierarchical cell structure. The model for networks with the multiple levels can simplify multi-dimensional ones into one-dimensional queueing model. The computational advantage will be growing as the layers are constructed in multiple levels. The computer simulation is provided for validating the proposed analytical model.