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In this paper I first observe several golden crowns found in Gyeongju area. It has generally been recognized that the golden crowns originated from Siberia and flowered gorgeously in Gyeongju area of Shinla. I investigate their historical background and characteristics. The results of this study are as follows. As for the origin of Shinla golden crowns, I advocate the hypothesis that they were introduced from Siberia accompanied by the southward immigration of Xiongnu to Gyeongju area. I argue that the culture of Shinla golden crowns was finally formed, based on elementary level of gold work culture and technology once developed early in Gyeongju area, by applying elaborated skills of immigrant Xiongnu brought after the mid 4th century to the prototype of golden crowns previously introduced from Siberia, as a result of which those gorgeous golden crowns were reincarnated in Shinla. The Xiongnu who moved to Europe, regarded as the Huns, left designs and patterns that appeared on Shinla gold crowns on other remains, but they did not seem to have left any golden crowns. I claime that they returned to the east after their empire perished and eventually settled down in Gyeongju area after the mid 5th century with their gold work culture and new technology. I argue that this can account for the great increase of golden remains and the much more exquisite and refined gold work skills at that particular time of the history.
Using shrouds has been a long lasting custom to pay respect for the dead. The best clothes among those worn while the dead was alive were chosen: officials were treated with official clothes that they wore while alive; ordinary people were treated with wedding clothes, the best ceremonial dress. Among the excavated remains of the first and middle period of Chosen were found the clothes that have left traces indicating that the dead had worn while alive. From the late period of Chosen, however, not a few shrouds were excavated which were newly made of good silk, revealing that shrouds were specially made instead of using the clothes that the dead had worn while alive. This paper reports the following results obtained by shroud production out of 100% Hanji yarn fabric and from the evaluation of material property on Hanji yarn fabric. Evaluations on fastness to various aspects revealed that fastness to washing is largely grade 4, which is relatively high; Fastness to dry cleaning and rubbing is above grade 4, which is very high; Fastness to light is grade 3, which, just like silk, is somewhat low but is not a problem for shrouds at all. Expected effects from the shroud production out of 100% Hanji yarn fabric are great. So far, in making shrouds, hemp cloth has tended to be preferred, thereby leading to a shortage of domestic hemp cloth and the import of cheap Chinese product. Thus Hanji shrouds are expected to be widely used as an ordinary dress, thereby replacing low quality Chinese product, and to be further developed into a high value-added product.
This study, starting with a review of the history of Hanji, investigates actual conditions of current development of the Hanji yarn and Hanjiyarn fabric, and present situation of Hanji costume production. Hanji refers to Korea's original Suchoji (handmade paper) made of the bark of the paper mulberry. It is in contrast with the western paper, Yangji, and was introduced from the West after the opening towards western civilization in the past. When working out Hanji costume, various techniques of dyeing can be applied to Hanji since it is easy to dye. Also, Hanji can be effectively used in producing costume works: toughness and softness can be freely expressed since it is light, it is easy to express patterns, and it has high degree of formativeness. Some distinctive qualities of the Hanji yarn currently produced are that this yarn having an intermediate property between cotton and yam allows weaving and knitting and has a high degree of durability, dyeability and washability. Hanji can extend to be used as fiber fashion material, hometextile (bedclothes, wall paper, curtain, carpet, etc.), wedding dress, underwear. Particularly, Hanji yarn is further expected to be produced up to 50's through machine, thereby leading to composite spun yarn. Although Hanji yarn is expensive, its raw material can be diversified and thus distinctive Hanji yarn can be developed. I certainly believe Hanji yarn will be a fashion fabric that can represent Korea.
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 균주의 염색체로부터 클로닝된 다제 내성 유전자 emeA의 발현은 항생제 및 여러 약제에 대해 내성을 나타내며, DAPI와 Hoechst 33342 등을 배출하는 것으로 보고되었다. 본 연구에서는 약제 초감수성 숙주균주인 대장균 KAM32에 emeA 유전자를 발현시키고, 다제배출 펌프단백질인 EmeA의 생화학적인 특징에 대해 발표한다. EmeA는 393개의 아미노산으로 구성되어 있으며, Major Facilitate Super Family의 전형적인 특징인 12개의 막관통구조를 가지고 있었다. 또한 Lactococcus lactis의 Blt 및 Staphylococcus aureus의 NorA, 그리고 Escherichia coli의 TetA 등과 아미노산 서열에서 상당한 유사성을 나타내었다. 형광기질인 ethidium bromide와 acriflavine을 이용한 약제축적 활성 실험에서 EmeA를 발현하는 균주는 대조균주에 비해 현저하게 낮은 세포내 약제축적을 나타내었으며, ethidium bromide를 이용한 약제배출활성 실험에서 EmeA 발현균주는 에너지 의존적인 ethidium bromide 배출활성을 나타내었다. 또한 약제배출 펌프단백질로 알려져 있는 reserpine은 EmeA의 ethidium bromide 배출활성에 대해서도 강력한 저해활성을 나타내었다. It was reported that expression of emeA gene, which was cloned from Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, is responsible for the resistance against several antibiotics and for the efflux drugs, like as DAPI and Hoechst 33342. In this study, emeA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli KAM32, which is hypersensitive to many antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, and the biochemical properties of EmeA, a multidrug efflux pump, were investigated. EmeA showed 12 transmembrane domain structure which was constituted with 393 amino acids. EmeA showed significant homology in amino acid sequence with Blt of Lactococcus lactis, NorA of Staphylococcus aureus, and TetA of E. coli. EmeA expressing cells showed significantly lower accumulation level of ethidium bromide and acriflavine than EmeA non-expressing cells. Moreover, EmeA expressing cells represented efflux activity of ethidium bromide and acriflavine from the cells in an energy-dependent manner. This efflux activity was strongly inhibited by reserpine, which was known as a strong inhibitor of many drug efflux pumps.
This thesis is to reveal features and characteristics of the evil woman in Gyubanggasa and consider its features and characteristics in the Gyenyeoga. Works under this thesis are 10 ; <Gyonyoga>, <Gyubangjeonghoon> , <Gmssigyeneosa>, <Nabuga>, <Bokseonhwaeunga>, <Jikjungnok>, <Hangsin gyohoongira>, <Heoinga> and <Hoonminga>. This thesis sorted features of the evil w om an by standard of the boundary of the Gyenyeo items and of non -Gyenyeo ones. According to the Gyenyeo items is a total of 5 works; <Gyuibangjeonghoon>, <Bokseonhwaeumga> , <Jinjungnok>, <Yongbupyeon-Jeobuin> and <Hangsilgyohoongira>. These show 11 items of a typical lazy woman. The admonishment of the non-Gyenyeo items includes 6 works of <Nabooga>, <Heoinga>, <Hoonminga>, <Gyeonyeoga>, <Gimssigyeneosa> and <Yongboobyeon-Bbangdeokomi>. It’s divided by standard of admonishing weaving and chastity in to lazy woman and fornicating woman. The lazy woman includes <Nabooga>, <Heoinga> and <Hoonminga>. The fornicating woman includes 3 works of <Gyeonyoga>, <Gimssigyeonyeosa> and <Yongbupyeon-Bbangdeokomi>. The evil women in the Gyenyeoga are closely related with admonishment through woman-admonishing items being the basic pattern while admonishment th rough weaving work (lazy woman type) also admonishes weaving work with admonishment on weaving work. Admonishment through fornication (fornicating woman type) woman includes woman-admonishing woman items and weaving work while admonishing chastity through fornication.