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A silicate carbon star is a carbon star which shows circumstellar silicate dust features. We collect a sample of 44 silicate carbon stars from the literature and investigate the validity of the classification. For some objects, it is uncertain whether the central star is a carbon star. We confirm that 29 objects are verified silicate carbon stars. We classify the confirmed objects into three subclasses based on the evolution phase of the central star. To investigate the effect of the chemical transition phase from O to C, we use the radiative transfer models for the detached silicate dust shells. The spectral energy distributions and the infrared two-color diagrams of the silicate carbon stars are compared with the theoretical model results. For the chemical transition model without considering the effect of a disk, we find that the life time of the silicate feature is about 50 to 400 years depending on the initial dust optical depth.
Mandarin orange fruits were artificially contaminated with an organophosphorus insecticide phenthoate by dipping and the residue level of phenthoate was investigated during the purification steps of dietary fiber or bioflavonoid. The removal rate of phenthoate at 8 and 0.5 ppm levels was 98% in the total dietary fiber, 99% in the insoluble dietary fiber and 99.8% in the soluble dietary fiber preparations. During the preparation of bioflavonoid from peels at a 5 ppm pesticide level, the removal rate was 90% in the intermediate extract and 99.9% in the final extract. In conclusion, phenthoate residues in the peels of mandarin orange were mostly removed during the preparation processes of dietary fiber or bioflavonoid and its residue level would not raise any problem in safety aspects of the purified products.
정부는 차세대 해양생물 유전체 사업을 통해 해양바이오 산업의 활성화 유도를 연구목표로 한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 이 사업에 대한 경제적 타당성을 분석함으로써 정책판단에 유용한 정보를 제공하고자 한다. 사업의 경제적 편익은 시장수요 접근법을 이용하여 추정하였다. 이를 바탕으로 경제성 분석 지표인 편익/비용 비율, 순현재가치, 내부수익률을 분석하여 제시한다. 분석결과 순현재가치, 편익/비용 비율, 내부수익률은 각각 43,927백만원, 1.62, 12.11%로 산정되어 각각 0, 1.0, 5.5%를 상회하므로 차세대 해양생물 유전체 사업은 비용-편익 분석을 통과한다. The government should aim to induce activation in the study of marinebiotechnology industry over the marine genome project for next generation(MGPNG). In this regard, this study attempts to analyze the economic feasibilityof the MGPNG program in order to provide policy-maker with useful information. This paper, after estimating the economic benefit of MGPNG using market demandapproach. To this end, the indices for economic feasibility such as net present value(NPV), benefit/cost (B/C) ratio, and internal rate of return (IRR) are presented. The results show that NPV, B/C, and IRR are computed to be 43,927 million won,1.62, and 12.11%, respectively, which are bigger than 0, 1.0, and 5.5%, and that theMGPNG passes the cost-benefit analysis.
Cobalt (Co) compounds have been used for centuries to impart rich blue color to glass, glazes and ceramics. Cobalt monoxide (CoO), an oxide of Co, is an inorganic compound that has long been used as a coloring agent in the ceramic industry. Unlike other coloring agents, CoO can be used to develop colors other than blue, and several factors such as its concentration in the glaze and firing condition have been suggested as possible mechanisms. For example, CoO produces a typical blue color called "cobalt blue" at very low concentrations such as 1 wt% in both oxidation and reduction firing conditions; a higher concentration of CoO (5 wt%) develops a darker blue color under the same firing conditions. Interestingly, CoO also develops a purple color at high concentrations above 10 wt%. In this study, we examined the applicability and mechanism of a novel purple glaze containing cobalt(II, III) oxide, one of the well characterized cobalt oxides. Experimental results show that an Augite crystal isoform (Augite-Fe/Co) in which Fe was replaced with Co is the main component contributing to the formation of the purple color. Based on these results, we developed a glaze using chemically synthesized Augite-Fe/Co crystal as a color pigment. Purple color glaze was successfully developed by the addition of 6~15 wt% of $Co_3O_4$ to magnesia lime.