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Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) in patients with oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with oral cavity cancer treated with HDR remote-control afterloading brachytherapy using 192Ir between 2001 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Brachytherapy was administered in 11 patients as the primary treatment and in five patients as salvage treatment for recurrence after the initial surgery. In 12 patients, external beam radiotherapy (50–55 Gy/25 fractions) was combined with IBT of 21 Gy/7 fractions. In addition, IBT was administered as the sole treatment in three patients with a total dose of 50 Gy/10 fractions and as postoperative adjuvant treatment in one patient with a total of 35 Gy/7 fractions. Results: The 5-year overall survival of the entire group was 70%. The actuarial local control rate after 3 years was 84%. All five recurrent cases after initial surgery were successfully salvaged using IBT ± external beam radiotherapy. Two patients developed local recurrence at 3 and 5 months, respectively, after IBT. The acute complications were acceptable (≤grade 2). Three patients developed major late complications, such as radio-osteonecrosis, in which one patient was treated by conservative therapy and two required surgical intervention. Conclusion: HDR IBT for oral cavity cancer was effective and acceptable in diverse clinical settings, such as in the cases of primary or salvage treatment.
본 논문은 石谷李圭晙의 사상을 『中庸』에 대한 주석을 중심으로 분석한 것이다. 그는 經學을 중심으로 하여 독자적인 心性수양론의 체계를 구성하였고, 이를 바탕으로 자신만의 의학이론을 전개함으로써 醫儒同道의 이상을 실현한 조선 후기의 대표적인 儒醫라 할 수 있다. 『中庸』의 체제와 구성에 있어 石谷은 下學上達의 학문 목적을 실현하기 위하여 『中庸』을 上達에 『大學』을 下學과 짝지어 『大學』과 『中庸』을일관성있는 체제로 구성하였다. 『大學』은 下學으로 天道를 말하지 않았고, 『中庸』은 天道와 人事에 골고루 해당됨을 밝혔다. 天道와 中和의 부분에 있어서도 石谷은 ‘命-性-心-情'을 하나의 物로이해하고, 순수한 天道가 순수함을 한결같이 유지하여 치우치거나 다른 사물에 의지함이 없는 상태를 中이라 하고 天命之性이라 하였다. 그리고 天道-人道가 공히 一本과 萬殊의 구조를 지니고 있는데, 이를 石谷은 인간의 性命에 있어서는 ‘心-形'으로 구분되어 지는데, 이를 통하여 中和의 의미와 善惡과 七情의 발생을 설명한다. 人道와 誠·仁의 논의에서는 天道와 人道, 人心이 誠으로 매개되면 주체와 객체가 융화되어 天人合一의 이상을 구현할 수 있다는 것이다. 誠으로 天과 사람이 일관됨을 주장한 것이다. 그는 忠恕를 설명하면서 忠은 ‘誠'하려는 의지라고 하여 ‘誠-忠'으로 설명하고, 恕는 仁을 실천하는 것으로 ‘仁-恕'를 말한다. 仁을 天命之性으로 여겨 형이상학적 차원으로 이해하는 성리학의 경우와 달리 天道와 誠과 연관하나 실천적인 德으로 해석하는데 연유한다. This paper analyzes the concept of the Yi Gyu-jun(李圭晙) focused comments on The Doctrine of Mean(中庸). He can be regarded as representative of the late Joseon(朝鮮)'s Ruyi(儒醫) realizing the ideal of Yirutongdao(醫儒同道) by deploying a medical theory through his Confucianism. He was to achieve academic goals. So he was called high-level study The Doctrine of Mean(中庸), the study of low-level was called The Great learning(大學). Even in parts of . Chendo(天道) and Junghwa(中和), he ``Myung(命)-Sung(性)-Sim(心)-Jeong (情)`` were understood to be one exists. Called pure Chendo(天道) value-biased consistently maintained the purity or the absence of reliance on other things, Jung(中) and was called Sung(性). And Chendo(天道)-Indo(人道) that both have the structure of Ilbon(一本) and Mansu(萬殊). In it he human body and mind is divided into ``Sim(心)-Hyeong(形)``, explains the meaning and development of morality and emotion Junghwa(中和) through it. Chendo(天道) and Indo(人道), Insim(人心) is consistent with Sung(誠) is fused the subject and the object that it can achieve the ideal of Cheoninhabil(天人合一). He is explaining the Chung-seo(忠恕) Chung(忠) is described as a ``Sung(誠)`` willingness to say ``Sung(誠)-Chung(忠)`` and, Seo(恕) is In(仁) and says that practice. In(仁) and Sung(性) in Neo-Confucian thought was that, unlike in the case of the metaphysical dimension of understanding with Cheondo(天道) associated with one and Sung(誠) reason to interpret a practical virtue.
선승들이 선원에서 참선을 하면서 농사를 함께 짓자고 하는 禪農佛敎의 전통은 중국의 百丈淸規에서부터 확립된 전통이다. 이는 걸식을 위주로 하면서 수행을 하는 인도불교의 전통과는 다른 것으로서 중국에 와서 토착화된 것이다. 이러한 변화는 그 이후 동아시아 불교에 적지 않은 영향을 미친 것으로 짐작된다. 이러한 수행가풍의 변화가 가져온 의미는 적지 않을 것으로 보인다. 특히 노동을 통한 근면이 강조되는 근대화의 과정에서 선농불교가 주창되었다는 점에서 주목을 받을 만한 것으로 평가된다. 이 논문 역시 그러한 의미의 탐색을 위한 과정에서 얻어진 수확의 일부이다. 의미의 천착을 시도하는 작업 중에서, 뜻밖에 우리 근대불교에서 이루어진 선농불교의 두 사례, 즉 鶴鳴과 龍城의 선농불교 실천을 두고서 누가 먼저 행하게 되었는지 하는 嚆矢의 문제에서 異說이 확인되었다. 종래 이 분야의 연구를 개척한 金光植은 용성을 선농불교의 효시로 자리매김하고 있다. 그런 용성의 선농불교를 기준으로 하여, 학명의 선농불교를 평가하는 방법론을 취하고 있었던 것이다. 이 논문은 金光植의 효시에 대한 관점이 오류임을 밝히고자 한 것이다. 그러한 과정에서 자연스럽게 "과연 선농불교라는 것이 무엇인가"라는 개념의 定義문제를 제기하게 되었다. 선농불교의 개념을 어떻게 설정하느냐에 따라서, 용성의 북청광산 투자까지 선농불교라 볼 수 있는지 하는 점이 결정된다. 그러한 점이 분명해 진다면 누가 선농불교를 가장 먼저 실천했는가 하는 점은 저절로 명백해 지기 때문이다. 이러한 과정을 통하여 종래 김광식이 주장한 것처럼, 근대 한국에서 선농불교를 가장 먼저 실천한 효시는 용성이 아니라 오히려 학명이라는 점을 밝히고자 하였다. This report is tried to shed new light on Son-Agriculture Buddhism(Buddhism of getting together Son and Farm) made by Son Master Hak-Myung(鶴鳴) and Yong-Sung(龍城) through the First and the concept of Son-Agriculture Buddhism as a clue. But my purpose for this study is to put the First and the concept of Son-Agriculture Buddhism right in the modern Korea to criticize for view of Kim, Kwang-Sik(金光植) whose research is arisen problems from both the First and the concept aspects, even though it is left a pioneering academic legacy more directly. It was possible by depending on so-called "Historical-Philosophical Methodology ", which tries to apply philosophical views that was easy to neglect in terms of traditional statements and appraisals of history. It was also possible to make clear a problem that who practiced as the First by asking the concept that what is indeed Son-Agriculture Buddhism. Of course, the philosophical concept composes induction to analyze historical examples in details, not to compose deduction in the idea. I could get a dictionary`s definition of Buddhism of Son-Agriculture Buddhism to count on such a methodology. Son-Agriculture Buddhism: It says that monks work(farm) under an instruction by a master for not only a self-sufficient economical motive but a Son practice by work or boosting monks` fad. The working place(farm) for a main management must be temple or located near a temple. The master works with monks together, showing monks means of finding enlightenment as well and monks can practice sitting in Son meditation the time of working in the front and the rear. In this way, Son-Agriculture Buddhism is cultivating farm and Son together and aiming for doing farm is practising Son. The most basic thing in this definition is "monks work(farm) under an instruction by a master". Therefore participation for mine management by Son master Yong-Sung is not participation for physical work by monks. There is no evidence. It is nothing but capital investment. So it can not be considered Son-Agriculture Buddhism. It would rather appraise Buddhism for production. In other words, the case of Daigaksa temple(大覺寺) in the Gan-Do(間島) and Hwaguawon temple(花菓園) in the Ham-Yang(咸陽) practiced by Son master Yong-Sung could be regarded Son-Agriculture Buddhism. On the other hand, the case of Book-Chung(北靑) mine could not be regarded the case of Son-Agriculture Buddhism. In this way, it is come out that the case of Son master Hak-Myung purely maintains Son-Agriculture Buddhism to distinguish between Son-Agriculture Buddhism and Buddhism for production, while the case of Son master Yong-Sung coexists Son-Agriculture Buddhism and Buddhism for production. Furthermore, as looking at a method of entering enlightenment which doing farm as a level of Son and doing farm enter the Son, it is difficult to say about the case of Son master Yong-Sung owing to absence of the detail resources. On the other hand, Son Master Hak-Myung reveals certainly through the poetry named ``Sunyongok(Song of Son and Farm)`` that they should work in the position of practicing asceticism and let ascetics enter by farming tools. In that way, practice of Son master Yong-Sung also has Son-Agriculture Buddhism, but it had better appraise that practice of Son master Hak-Myung satisfies connotation contained definition more faithfully. As clearing such a discussion one more time, the mine management performed by Son master Yong-Sung in 1916 is not Son-Agriculture Buddhism, but Buddhism for production. Therefore, the first of Son-Agriculture Buddhism in the modern Korea surely should make a seat to Hak-Myung Son master practiced ``Half Farm and Half Son-ism``. Because practice of Son master Yong-Sung in the Daigaksa temple in the Gan-Do and Hwaguawon temple happened from 1926 to 1927. As stipulating History rightly, I have to make clear who is the First of Son-Agriculture Buddhism, actually there is separate more important fact. Both Hak-Myung and Yong-Sung in deed su
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This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of duck-meat consumption on adult disease risk factors, including body compositions, hematological variables, and serum metabolic and lipid profiles in adult human males. To obtain results, 20 adult males aged 20 to 25 were subjected to a diet of 600 g/day of duck-meat for 4 wk, after which body composition, hematological variables, and serum metabolic and lipid profiles were investigated to determine if there was a relationship between duck-meat consumption and adult disease risk factors. The results revealed that high amounts of duck-meat intake did not negatively alter body indices such as body weight, fat mass, body mass index (BMI), % body fat or waste-to-hip ratio (WHR). Furthermore, there were statistically insignificant changes in the number of blood cells, although this number did increase significantly following intake of duck-meat. Moreover, general decreases in serum metabolic parameters were observed, but none of these changes were significant with the exception of the concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The serum concentrations of LDL-cholesterol also showed a statistically significant decrease by 5.86%. Therefore, this study suggests that the ingestion of duck-meat not only significantly increased the RBC count but also decreased BUN and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in adult males.
( Sung-han Kim ), ( Ho-su Lee ), ( Hyun-jung Lee ), ( Sun-mi Kim ), ( Sung Shin ), ( Sang-hyoung Park ), ( Kyung-jo Kim ), ( Young-hoon Kim ), ( Heungsup Sung ), ( Sang-oh Lee ), ( Sang-ho Choi ), ( Suk-kyun Yan) 대한내과학회 2017 The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine Vol.32 No.5
Background/Aims: We evaluated the proposed clinical application of the com-bined interpretation of host factors and viral factors in two different cytomegalo-virus (CMV) co-infection models. Methods: We prospectively enrolled all human immunodeficiency virus non-in-fected patients with confirmed Pneumocystitis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and those with suspected gastrointestinal CMV disease in a tertiary hospital. All patients underwent CMV interferon-γ releasing assay (IGRA) for CMV (T-track CMV, Lophius Biosciences). We created the 2-axis model with the CMV IGRA results as the x-axis and the results for CMV virus replication as the y-axis, and hypoth-esized that cases falling in the left upper quadrant (high viral load and low CMV- specific immunity) of the model would be true CMV infections. The CMV IGRA results were concealed from the attending physicians. Results: Of 39 patients with PCP, four (10%) were classified as combined CMV pneumonia, 13 (33%) as bystander activation, and the remaining 22 (56%) as no CMV infection. The data for all four patients with PCP and CMV pneumonia fell in the left upper quadrant of the 2-axis model. Of 24 patients with suspected gas-trointestinal CMV disease, 12 (50%) were classified as gastrointestinal CMV dis-ease and the remaining 12 (50%) as bystander activation with no gastrointestinal CMV disease. The data for 11 of the 12 patients (92%) with gastrointestinal CMV disease were located in the left upper quadrant of the 2-axis model. Conclusions: Cases yielding low CMV IGRA results and high CMV viral repli-cation appear to be true CMV infections. Further studies with large number of cases in different types of CMV disease should be proposed.
Sung,Kwon,Kim,Ji,Eun,Park,Kyung,Hwan,Kim,Jin,Mo,Cho,문장섭,Wan-Soo,Yoon,김세훈,김영일,김영준,Ho,Sung,Kim,도윤식,Jae-Sung,Park,윤홍인,서영범,Kyoung-Su,Sung,송진호,Chan,Woo,Wee,Se-Hoon,Lee,Do,Hoon,Lim,임정호,장종희,한명훈,Je,Beom,Hong 대한뇌종양학회 2020 Brain Tumor Research and Treatment Vol.8 No.1
Background: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO) conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with brain tumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practice for patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included 7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategies in specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. Results: In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection with adjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3 cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgery for surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according to the number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the survey about PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy as the first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variation among respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapy was most preferred. Conclusion: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with brain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.
( Sun-uk Bak ), ( Suji Kim ), ( Hae-jun Hwang ), ( Jung-a Yun ), ( Wan-sung Kim ), ( Moo-ho Won ), ( Ji-yoon Kim ), ( Kwon-soo Ha ), ( Young-guen Kwon ), ( Young-myeong Kim ) 생화학분자생물학회(구 한국생화학분자생물학회) 2017 BMB Reports Vol.50 No.2
Heme oxygenase (HO-1) catalyzes heme to carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin/bilirubin, and iron and is known to prevent the pathogenesis of several human diseases. We assessed the beneficial effect of heme degradation products on osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with CORM-2 (a CO donor) and bilirubin, but not with iron, decreased RANKLinduced osteoclastogenesis, with CORM-2 having a more potent anti-osteogenic effect. CORM-2 also inhibited RANKLinduced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorption activity in marrow-derived macrophages. Treatment with hemin, a HO-1 inducer, strongly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in wild-type macrophages, but was ineffective in HO-1<sup>+/- </sup>cells. CORM-2 reduced RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression by inhibiting IKK-dependent NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species production. These results suggest that CO potently inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting redox-sensitive NF-κB-mediated NFATc1 expression. Our findings indicate that HO-1/CO can act as an antiresorption agent and reduce bone loss by blocking osteoclast differentiation. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(2): 103-108]