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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between pet ownership and asthma symptoms in Korean children. Methods: This study used data from the 8th Panel Study on Korean Children in 2015. For the final study, 1598 cases were used. Wheezing as an asthma symptom was self-reported as an outcome variable. Whether children had owned dogs or cats or not was used as an independent variable. Results: A total of 6.8% of children lived with dogs and 2.1% of children lived with cats in their homes. There were 4.0% of children who had asthma symptoms in the past year. When comparing ‘children who had owned dogs for more than 12 months' with ‘children who had not owned dogs', the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for ‘asthma symptoms' were 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.30) among male children and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.94-2.46) among female children. When comparing ‘children who had owned cats for more than 12 months' with ‘children who had not owned cats', the adjusted ORs for ‘asthma symptoms' were 38.94 (95% CI, 35.55-42.65) among male children and 5.32 (95% CI, 4.60-6.16) among female children. When comparing ‘children who had owned both dogs and cats for more than 12 months' with ‘children who had not owned at all', the adjusted OR for ‘asthma symptoms' was 13.22 (95% CI, 11.93-14.65), and when comparing ‘children who had owned cats only' with ‘children who had not owned at all', the adjusted OR for ‘asthma symptoms' was 9.25 (95% CI, 8.50-10.08). Conclusions: As a result, children s asthma symptoms were higher in the case of cats than with dogs, and in the case of cats, boys were more at risk than girls. In the analysis for the risk of asthma symptoms when a dog and a cat are raised at the same time, it was statistically confirmed that the children in the home were more at risk than with single animal ownership. The results of this study can be considered to be of great importance in policy-making and for the use of educational materials in the field of environmental health.
Railway noise barrier is generally used with welding of joint rail for railway noise reduction in our country. In this study, method for performance evaluation of railway noise barrier using insertion loss was suggested in case of without having noise measurement results before barrier installation. For this, railway noise measurements were performed in commercial high-speed railway site which has railway noise barrier. As a noise level before noise barrier installation, predicted noise level were used. From this method the performance evaluation for railway noise barrier were performed accurately and efficiently.
Exact and precise noise measurement is the basis for the reduction measure R&D, impact assessment and prediction modeling for railway noise. In this study, research trend as well as national and international noise measurement standard are investigated. For the estimation of vertical radiation characteristics of railway noise, specially devised zig was used. From the noise measurement and analysis, exact noise height radiated from the railway was characterized. The obtained results will be used for the suggestion of the height of microphone position of railway noise measurements.
This study is purported for observing how Confucian politics and s??w??ns were used in competition for political power through the controversies over placing Song Si-y??l`s memorial tablet at the Tobong S??w??n(道峯書院). The Tobong S??w??n(道峯書院), which was built on King S??njo`s sixth year as a symbol to indicate that the Confucian scholars have taken over political power, was the first place near the capital to hold memorial services for Cho Kwangjo. Confucian scholars who lived in the capital would gather at the Tobong S??w??n for studies and discourse. After the Kapsulhwanguk(甲戌換局)^2) the Noron(老論) party attempted to hold memorial services at Tobong S??w??n(道峯書院) for Song Si-y??l, who had been one of the founding members of the Noron(老論) party and executed when the Namin(南人) party was ruling. This attempt was purported for obtaining superiority over the opposing parties concerning moral justification and orthodoxy. Naturally, due to this purpose the opposing Soron(少論) and Namin(南人) parties strongly objected to holding the service. The Noron(老論) party`s strong attempt to hold memorial services for Song Si-y??l and at the same time to place the founding member of their party on the same rank as Cho Kwangjo and the strong objection of the opposing parties developed into a political dispute. The society grew politically insecure. Though the controversy cooled down after the Kapsulhwanguk(甲戌換局) leaving Song Si-y??l`s memorial tablet at Tobong S??w??n(道峯書院), the tablet was removed and replaced repeatedly during the later years according to the party in power at particular times. The controversy over holding memorial services for Song Si-y??l at Tobong S??w??n(道峯書院) grew immediately into a political dispute because the s??w??n was located particularly near the capital. This case shows well that the s??w??n of that time was one of the main factors by which a political party could secure and support the development of their political power. The controversy later on also caused disputes within the Noron(老論) and Soron(少論) parties. While the mainstream of the Soron(少論) party was against having Song Si-y??l`s memorial service held at Tobong S??w??n, few of the party members agreed in advocacy of fair distribution of power based on the wisdom and knowledge of each individual regardless of which party one belonged to. The minority group moved into the Noron(老論) party. Meanwhile, as with the Noron(老論) party, some party members argued that the service honoring Song should not be forced. Such disputes within the party later resulted in the actual division of the Noron(老論) party that began since the eighteenth century.
Objectives: To present the bases for health education on electronic cigarettes, we analyze the present state of electronic cigarettes. Methods: We applied descriptive study, reviewing the literature from domestic and foreign electronic databases such as National Discovery for Science Leaders and PubMed. Results: Electronic cigarette has been the subject of much controversy but very little study. I reviewed and summed up the definitions, device safety, health risk, smoking cessation effects, addiction, second hand smoke, and regulations of electronic cigarettes. Conclusion: Finally,I presented the evidence-based contents and desirable direction for health education about electronic cigarettes. The results suggested that the health educators focus on the potential addiction to electronic cigarettes, instead of the cessation effects.