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      • KCI등재

        Southwestward Intrusion of Korea Strait Bottom Cold Water Observed in 2003 and 2004

        신창웅,전동철,김철수,변상경,황상철 한국해양과학기술원 2006 Ocean science journal Vol.41 No.4

        Hydrographic surveys were carried out four times in the western channel of the Korea Strait in March and August 2003 and in June and November 2004. The bottom cold water, which was lower than 10C, appeared in the channel trough except in March 2003. It flowed southwestward along the shelf of Korean coasts in August 2003 and in November 2004. The width and the maximum speed of the intrusion current were about 20 km and approximately 25 cms-1, respectively, off Ulsan, Korea. The volume transport of the bottom cold water was estimated 0.019 Sv (Sv106 m3 s-1) in August 2003 and 0.026 Sv in November 2004.

      • KCI등재

        Seasonal Variations in the Low-salinity Intermediate Water in the Region South of Sub-polar Front of the East Sea (Sea of Japan)

        신창웅,변상경,김철수,이재학,김봉채,황상철,승영호,신홍렬 한국해양과학기술원 2013 Ocean science journal Vol.48 No.1

        Seasonal variations in the low-salinity intermediate water (ESIW) in the region south of the sub-polar front of the East Sea were investigated by using historical hydrographic data. The salinity of the representative density (sigma-0=27.2) of the ESIW was minimal in summer and maximal in winter in the region south of the sub-polar front. The selected four subregions showed different salinity variations. In the west of Oki Spur and the Yamato Basin, salinity fluctuated similarly, with a minimum during summer. In the Ulleung Basin and northwest of Sado Island, however, variations in salinity showed two minima, one is in winter and the other is in summer. These results imply differences in the flow path of the ESIW into the region south of the sub-polar front over time.

      • KCI등재

        The Inflow Path of the East Sea Intermediate Water into the Ulleung Basin in July 2005

        신창웅 한국해양과학기술원 2006 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.28 No.2

        To investigate inflow path of the East Sea Intermediate Water (ESIW) into the Ulleung Basin, hydrographic data surveyed in July 2005 were analyzed. The ESIW was characterized by the Salinity Minimum Layer (SML) within a depth range of 100 to 360 meters. Averaged potential temperature and salinity of the SML were 1.835oC and 34.049 psu, respectively. Mean potential density () of the SML was 27.221 with a standard deviation of 0.0393. On isopycnal surfaces of 27.14 and 27.18 which correspond to upper layers of the ESIW, the coastal low salinity water was separated from the offshore low salinity water by the relatively warm and saline water which might be affected by the Tsushima Warm Current Water. Relatively cold and fresh water, however, intruded into the Ulleung Basin from the region of Korean coast on isopycnal surfaces of 27.22 and 27.26 which was lower layer of the ESIW. The salinity distribution in the isopycnal layer of 27.14~27.26 with acceleration potential on 27.22 surface also showed clearly that the low salinity water flowed from the coastal area and intruded into the Ulleung Basin. This implies that the ESIW flows from the north to the south along the east coasts of Korea and spreads into the Ulleung Basin in summer.

      • KCI등재

        Characteristics of a Warm Eddy Observed in the Ulleung Basin in July 2005

        신창웅 한국해양과학기술원 2009 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.31 No.4

        Oceanographic survey data were analyzed to understand the characteristics of a warm eddy observed in the Ulleung Basin in July 2005. The temperature distribution at 200 db and vertical sections provided evidence of the warm eddy in the Ulleung Basin (UWE05). Based on the 5℃ isothermal line on 200 db temperature, the major axis was 160 km from southwest to northeast, and the minor axis was 80 km from southeast to northwest. The homogeneous layer in the thermocline of UWE05 had mean values of 10.40℃ potential temperature, 34.35 psu salinity, and 26.37 kg/m3 potential density (σθ) and provided evidence that UWE05 also existed during the winter of 2004-2005. A warm streamer initially flowed along the circumference of UWE05 and mixed with the upper central water. Two northward current cores were found on the western side of the measured current section at the central latitude of UWE05. One was the East Korean Warm Current (EKWC) and the other was the main stream of the western part of UWE05. Geostrophic transport of the upper layer (from the surface to the isopycnal surface of 26.9 σθ) was approximately 2.5 Sv in the eastern side of UWE05. However, the measured transport was twice as large as the geostrophic transport. Mass conservation of geostrophic transport was well satisfied in the upper layer. The direct current measurements and geostrophic transport analysis showed that the EKWC meandered around UWE05. Oceanographic survey data were analyzed to understand the characteristics of a warm eddy observed in the Ulleung Basin in July 2005. The temperature distribution at 200 db and vertical sections provided evidence of the warm eddy in the Ulleung Basin (UWE05). Based on the 5℃ isothermal line on 200 db temperature, the major axis was 160 km from southwest to northeast, and the minor axis was 80 km from southeast to northwest. The homogeneous layer in the thermocline of UWE05 had mean values of 10.40℃ potential temperature, 34.35 psu salinity, and 26.37 kg/m3 potential density (σθ) and provided evidence that UWE05 also existed during the winter of 2004-2005. A warm streamer initially flowed along the circumference of UWE05 and mixed with the upper central water. Two northward current cores were found on the western side of the measured current section at the central latitude of UWE05. One was the East Korean Warm Current (EKWC) and the other was the main stream of the western part of UWE05. Geostrophic transport of the upper layer (from the surface to the isopycnal surface of 26.9 σθ) was approximately 2.5 Sv in the eastern side of UWE05. However, the measured transport was twice as large as the geostrophic transport. Mass conservation of geostrophic transport was well satisfied in the upper layer. The direct current measurements and geostrophic transport analysis showed that the EKWC meandered around UWE05.

      • KCI등재

        2006년과 2007년 여름에 관측한 Hawaii-Chuuk 사이의 물리특성

        신창웅,김동국,전동철,김응,Shin, Chang-Woong,Kim, Dong-Guk,Jeon, Dong-Chull,Kim, Eung 한국해양과학기술원 2011 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.33 No.suppl3

        To investigate the physical characteristics and variations of oceanic parameters in the tropical central North Pacific, oceanographic surveys were carried out in summer of 2006 and 2007. The survey periods were classified by Oceanic Ni$\tilde{n}$o Index as a weak El Ni$\tilde{n}$o in 2006 and a medium La Ni$\tilde{n}$a in 2007. The survey instruments were used to acquire data on CTD (Conductivity Temperature and Depth), XBT (Expendable Bathythermograph), and TSG (Thermosalinograph). The dominant temporal variation of surface temperature was diurnal. The diurnal variation in 2007, when the La Ni$\tilde{n}$a weather pattern was in place, was stronger than that in 2006. Surface salinity in 2006 was affected by a northwestward branch of North Equatorial Current, which implies that the El Ni$\tilde{n}$o affects surface properties in the North Equatorial Current region. Two salinity minimum layers existed at stations east of Chuuk in both year's observations. The climatological vertical salinity section along $180^{\circ}E$ shows that the two salinity minimum layers exist in $2^{\circ}N{\sim}12^{\circ}N$ region, consistent with our observations. Analysis of isopycnal lines over the salinity section implies that the upper salinity minimum layer is from intrusion of the upper part of North Pacific Intermediate Water into the lower part of South Pacific Subtropical Surface Water and the lower salinity minimum layer is from Antarctic Intermediate Water.

      • KCI등재

        동해 남부 연안용승지수의 변화

        신창웅 한국해양학회 2019 바다 Vol.24 No.1

        Long-term trends and recent variations of upwelling index (UI), which affects significantly ecosystem in southwestern part of the East Sea, were investigated. The UI was calculated with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from January 1948 to September 2018. The mean UI has positive value that causes upwelling in April to August with a peak in July. The long-term reducing trend of UI was in statistically significant in June and July, and the sum of UI in May, June and July also showed same result. Through the atmospheric pressure analysis around the Korean peninsula, it was found that the trend of the UI was the influence of the pressure change trend in the northwestern region (35-50° N, 114-129° E) of the southwestern part of the East Sea. Investigating UI in recent 7 years from 2012 to 2018, it was revealed that the UI was bigger than 3 times of standard deviation in July 2013. This was result from the sea level pressure difference became larger in the southwestern part of the East Sea than normal year due to the lowered air pressure in the northeastern region of China and the strengthened high air pressure of western peripheral of the North Pacific High. On the other hand, the UI in July 2018 was negative when the impact of the North Pacific High and the low air pressure in the northeastern China was weak. Due to the decreasing trend of UI and its large year-to-year variation in southwestern part of the East Sea, continuous monitoring is necessary to know the influence of coastal upwelling on the ecosystem. 동해 남서부 해역의 해양생태계에 큰 영향을 미치는 연안용승의 변화를 파악하기 위해 1948년 1월부터 2018년 9월까지의NCEP/NCAR 재분석자료를 이용하여 용승지수를 계산하였다. 평균 용승지수는 4월부터 8월까지 용승이 발생하는 양의 값이 보이며 7월에 최대 값이 나타났다. 용승지수의 장기 변화는 6월과 7월에 통계적으로 유의미한 감소추세가 나타났으며, 5, 6, 7월 용승지수의 합도 통계적으로 유의미한 감소 경향을 보였다. 한반도 주변의 대기압 분석을 통하여 용승지수의 변화 추세는 동해남부해역을 기준으로 북서쪽 영역(35-50°N, 114-129°E)의 기압 변화 추세의 영향이라는 것을 밝혔다. 최근 7년간(2012년-2018년)의 용승지수 분석결과 2017년 7월에 용승지수가 표준편차의 3배 이상 높은 것을 발견하였다. 이것은 중국 북동쪽 지방에 평년과 다르게 저기압이 발달하였고 북태평양고기압이 일본과 대만 사이까지 영향을 주어 동해 남부에 큰 기압 차이가 발생했기 때문이었다. 반면에평년에 비하여 북쪽의 저기압과 남쪽의 고기압의 영향이 적었던 2018년 7월은 용승지수가 음의 값이었다. 동해남부 연안용승지수는 기후변화에 따라 감소하는 경향을 보이고 경년변동이 커서 생태환경에 대한 영향을 파악하기 위해서는 지속적인 모니터링이 필요하다.

      • KCI등재

        동해중층수의 일반적인 분포 특성

        신창웅(Chang-Woong Shin),변상경(Sang-Kyung Byun),김철수(Cheolsoo Kim),이재학(Jae Hak Lee),김봉채(Bong-Chae Kim),황상철(Sang-Chull Hwang),승영호(Young Ho Seung),신홍렬(Hong-Ryeol Shin) 한국해양과학기술원 2007 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.29 No.1

        To obtain the overall distribution patterns and characteristics of the East Sea Intermediate Water (ESIW), the historical data obtained by the Japan Maizuru Marine Observatory (MMO) and the Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) were analyzed. To obtain water characteristics of the ESIW on isopycnal surfaces, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen were interpolated at every 0.01 interval of potential density. And then the interpolated values were averaged at the same potential density. This potential density average method preserved the salinity minimum layer more clearly compared to the depth average method. The potential density (σθ) range of the ESIW was 26.9~27.3. The representative potential density of the ESIW was found to be 27.2, because the characteristics of the ESIW was clear at this density. From the horizontal distributions of physical properties on the isopycnal surface of 27.2σθ it is suggested that the low salinity ESIW circulates anticlockwise over the whole basin with the high salinity intermediate water. The low salinity intermediate water extended from the northwestern part to the east along the sub-polar front and to the Ulleung Basin along the east coast of Korea.

      • KCI등재

        2015-2016년 엘니뇨 기간 중 페루 북부 해안에서 관측한 비정상적으로 강한 해류

        신창웅(Chang-Woong Shin),구띠에레스 디미트리(Dimitri Gutié,rrez) 한국연안방재학회 2021 한국연안방재학회지 Vol.8 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The northern coast of Peru is a region that can rapidly detect the impact of an El Niño. To investigate the effects of the 2015-2016 El Niño on the oceanographic environment of the northern coast of Peru, the temperature and current data obtained from moored equipment at an oil platform were analyzed. Strong coastal along-shore currents of more than 0.60 m·s-1 were observed three times, although the mean current speed was 0.10 m·s-1 flowing toward the south-southwest. After the first strong current, the bottom temperature increased and the mixed layer deepened and remained there during the El Niño event. The temperature reached a maximum after the strong coastal current, then decreased gradually. An analysis of wind and sea surface height anomalies revealed that the coastal strong current was caused by Kelvin waves and the deepening of the mixed layer was not related to local winds, but to coastal Kelvin waves from the equator during the El Niño event.

      • KCI등재

        2006년과 2007년 여름에 관측한 Hawaii-Chuuk 사이의 물리특성

        신창웅(Chang-Woong Shin),김동국(Dong Guk Kim),전동철(Dongchull Jeon),김응(Eung Kim) 한국해양과학기술원 2011 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.33 No.3

        한국해양연구원에서는 열대 태평양의 물리특성을 파악하기 위해 2006년과 2007년 여름에 북적도해류 해역에 해당하는 하와이(Hawaii, USA)에서 축(Chuuk, Micronesia)에 이르는 항로를 따라 탐사를 실시하였다. 관측은 CTD, TSG, XBT를 이용하였다. 탐사 기간의 열대태평양의 상황은 2006년은 엘니뇨가 발달한 초기에 해당하였으며 2007년은 반대로 라니냐가 발달한 초기에 해당하였다. 2006년 엘니뇨는 약함으로 분류되고 2007년 라니냐는 중간으로 분류되었다. 열대해역의 표층해류는 2006년 9월에는 적도반류가 강하게 흘렀고 북적도 해류의 중심 위도가 2007년에 비하여 약 2°N 정도 북상하였다. 북적도해류는 170°W까지는 12°~16°N을 중심으로 서쪽으로 흐르다가 이후는 축이 남쪽으로 이동하여 10°~14°N이 중심축이 되어 서쪽으로 흘렀다. 165°~170°W에서 북적도해류가 2개로 분지되어 일부가 북서쪽을 향하였다. 라니냐 시기인 2007년 9월에는 남적도해류가 4°N까지 넓은 폭으로 강하게 180°E까지 적도를 중심으로 서쪽으로 흐르다가 세력이 약화되고 폭이 줄어 계속 서쪽으로 흘렀다. 적도반류는 2006년보다는 약하지만 서쪽에서는 2°~4°N 동쪽에서는 4°~6°N에서 축을 이루며 동쪽으로 흘렀다. 북적도 해류는 동쪽에서는 12°~16°N, 서쪽에서는 8°~12°N에서 축을 이루며 서쪽으로 흘렀다. TSG를 이용한 표층 수온 연속관측 자료는 태양복사열에 의하여 수온이 하루 주기로 변하였다. 스펙트럼 분석결과 일주기 변화가 수온 스펙트럼에서 뚜렷하며, 엘니뇨 기간에 관측한 2006년보다는 라니냐 기간에 관측한 2007년 수온에서 더 뚜렷하게 나타났다. 위치에 따른 수온과 염분변화는 하와이에서 축으로 가면서 수온은 증가하고 염분은 감소하는데 2006년의 염분은 하와이에서 170°E까지 염분이 2007년보다 높지 않았다. 이것은 동태평양의 저염 분수가 북적도해류를 타고 전달되어 2006년 관측기간의 해류가 175°W 부근에서 일부가 북서쪽으로 분지되는 현상 때문이다. 단면 관측결과는 일반적으로 북태평양 수괴 분포를 따라 수직적으로 표층수 아래에 북태평양아열대표층수, 북태평양중층수, 심층수와 저층수의 순서로 존재하였다. 2006년 관측에서 남북 방향의 지형류는 약간의 변화를 가지면서 최대 15 ㎝/s의 남향류가 나타났다. 이것은 관측 해역의 해류가 주로 서쪽방향으로 흐르는 북적도해류대역이기 때문이며 평균적인 북적도 해류에 비하여 작게 나타났다. 관측단면의 지형류는 2006년보다 2007년에 더 작게 나타났다. 이것은 북적도 해류의 남북방향 변동이 2006년보다 2007년에 적게 나타났기 때문이다. 혼합층은 La Nina에 해당하는 2007년에 El Nino에 해당하는 2006년보다 깊게 나타났다. 관측자료에서 두 개의 염분최소층이 축 부근의 정점에서 나타났다. 180°E 단면의 기후 평균자료에서는 대체로 2°N~12°N에서 두 개의 염분최소층이 나타난다. 염분단면과 각 수괴를 대표하는 중심밀도 분포는 북태평양 중앙 열대해역에 나타나는 상층의 염분최소층은 북태평양중층수의 상부의 해수가 등밀도면을 타고 남태평양아열대표층수의 하부로 관입하여 생성된 것임을 암시하였다. To investigate the physical characteristics and variations of oceanic parameters in the tropical central North Pacific, oceanographic surveys were carried out in summer of 2006 and 2007. The survey periods were classified by Oceanic Nino Index as a weak El Nino in 2006 and a medium La Nina in 2007. The survey instruments were used to acquire data on CTD (Conductivity Temperature and Depth), XBT (Expendable Bathythermograph), and TSG (Thermosalinograph). The dominant temporal variation of surface temperature was diurnal. The diurnal variation in 2007, when the La Nina weather pattern was in place, was stronger than that in 2006. Surface salinity in 2006 was affected by a northwestward branch of North Equatorial Current, which implies that the El Nino affects surface properties in the North Equatorial Current region. Two salinity minimum layers existed at stations east of Chuuk in both year’s observations. The climatological vertical salinity section along 180°E shows that the two salinity minimum layers exist in 2°N~12°N region, consistent with our observations. Analysis of isopycnal lines over the salinity section implies that the upper salinity minimum layer is from intrusion of the upper part of North Pacific Intermediate Water into the lower part of South Pacific Subtropical Surface Water and the lower salinity minimum layer is from Antarctic Intermediate Water.

      • KCI등재

        KOGA 기획과 활용연구

        신창웅(Chang-Woong Shin),박광순(Kwang-Soon Park),노영재(Young-Jae Rho),장경일(Kyung-Il Chang),방익찬(Ig-Chan Pang),문일주(Il-Ju Moon),김태림(Tae-Lim Kim),김봉채(Bong-Chae Kim),김동선(Dong-Sun Kim),김광희(Kwang-Hee Kim),김기완(Ki-Wan 한국해양과학기술원 2010 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.32 No.3

        In late 2010, the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration proposed a national monitoring project involving the deployment of 8 realtime ocean data buoys. The area occupied by the buoy-array, located south of the Ieodo Ocean Research Station, can be regarded as a kind of gateway to Korean waters with respect to warm currents and the shipping industry. The acronym for the project, KOGA (Korea Ocean Gate Array) was derived from this aspect. To ensure the success of the project, international cooperation with the neighboring countries of China and Japan is highly desirable. Once KOGA is successfully launched and the moored buoys start to produce data, the data will be applied to various areas such as data assimilation for operational oceanography, circulation dynamics, biogeochemical studies, satellite observations, and air-sea interactions. The aim of this paper is to provide suggestions for KOGA planning and applications.

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