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This is an exploratory study to find ways to improve the financial well-being of consumers in the digital environment. To that end, experience with, and satisfaction from, non-face-to-face financial services, plus self-confidence and reliability were evaluated. In addition, we examine how these characteristics relate to their competency in financial management. The main results of this study are as follows. First, the proportion of those experienced in using simple payment services and mobile remittance services was over 90%. The rates of financial product subscriptions, utility/tax payments, and app card usage were around 80%, with loan services and insurance claims at around 60%. On the other hand, experience with using a household account book service and robo-advisors did not even reach 50%, and with robo-advisors in particular only one person in five had experience using one. Second, from examining those who had used non-face-to-face financial services, satisfaction with mobile remittance services was the highest, and satisfaction with simple payment services, which had the highest usage rate, was moderate. For household account books and robo-advisor services, which had low usage rates, satisfaction was also low. Third, self-confidence with non-face-to-face financial services was higher in younger age groups and college (or higher) graduates who had high subjective income levels, whereas those who had a propensity to consume, and those with a propensity to save, were at appropriate levels. In particular, for mobile remittance services, the difference in self-confidence between inexperienced and experienced users was the greatest. Fourth, differences were examined between financial competencies in financial management according to experience from using non-face-to-face financial services. Financial management knowledge, behavior, attitudes, and skills were found to be higher in those with experience using a service. Fifth, financial management knowledge and skills were found to be factors that increased possibility of using financial services, and financial management behavior was found to have a weak influence. 본 연구는 급속히 변화하는 디지털전환 환경에서 비대면으로 이루어지는 금융생활서비스 이용 경험과 만족도, 자신감과 신뢰감을 평가하고, 이러한 특성이 재무관리역량과어떠한 관계가 있는지를 살펴보았다. 첫째, 비대면 금융생활서비스 경험률을 살펴본 결과 간편결제 서비스와 모바일 송금서비스를 이용한 경험이 있는 비중은 90%가 넘을 만큼 대중화 되어 있는 것을 확인하였고 금융상품 가입과 공공요금/세금 납부, 앱카드 이용률은 80% 내외, 보험금 청구 서비스는 60% 내외로 나타났다. 반면 가계부 서비스와로보어드바이저 이용경험률은 50% 미만이었고, 특히 로보어드바이저의 경우는 5명 중1명 정도만 이용한 경험이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 비대면 금융생활서비스 이용 경험자의 만족도가 가장 높은 서비스는 모바일 송금서비스였고 이용률이 가장 높았던 간편결제 서비스의 만족도는 중간 정도였으며 이용률이 낮았던 가계부와 로보어드바이저서비스의 경우는 만족도도 낮게 나타났다. 셋째, 비대면 금융생활서비스에 대한 자신감은 연령이 낮은 집단, 대졸 이상인 경우, 주관적 소득수준이 높은 경우, 소비성향과 저축성향이 적정수준인 경우 더 높게 나타났고 영남권에 거주하는 경우 충청강원권에 거주하는 경우보다 더 높았다. 또한 모든 비대면 금융생활서비스에서 이용경험이 있는 경우자신감이 더 높았고, 특히 모바일 송금서비스의 경우 무경험자와 유경험자 간의 자신감차이가 가장 컸다. 넷째, 비대면 금융생활서비스 이용경험에 따른 재무관리역량 수준의차이를 살펴본 결과, 서비스를 이용한 경험이 있는 경우 재무관리지식, 행동, 태도, 기술이 더 높게 나타난 경우가 많았다. 다섯째, 재무관리역량에 포함되는 지식과 기술은 비대면 금융서비스의 이용가능성을 높이는 요인으로 나타났고 재무관리행동의 경우 약하게나마 이용가능성에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.
Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) presents with proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and markedly high creatine kinase level. It is caused by the loss of dysferlin due to mutations in the DYSF gene. Due to its similar clinical features as inflammatory myopathy, it is often difficult to distinguish between the two. We present a case of a 48-year-old male who developed progressive proximal muscle weakness, papulosquamous lesions on the knuckles, elevated levels of muscle enzymes, and electromyogram abnormalities. Based on the clinical presentation, the initial impression was dermatomyositis, yet it was refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Subsequently, dysferlin immunostaining and genetic analysis led to the final diagnosis of LGMD2B. This case shows that LGMD2B can present with extramuscular symptoms mimicking inflammatory myopathy in later stages of life. Dysferlin immunostaining and/or genetic analysis of the DYSF gene are essential for its diagnosis.
The purpose of this study was to research on the motives and behaviors of Blog utilizing for middle school and college students, who were frequent users of Blog. I tried to find the sub-factors of the Blog using motives, the Blog using behavior, and the reasons for reduced interests toward Blog, and to find the relationships among these factors and the differences between the two groups. And I tried to find the typology based on Blog utilizing motives and behaviors, and to find the characteristics of the types. In order to accomplish objectives, FGI and survey were used simultaneously. From FGI, I improved the questionnaire and the survey was conducted toward 475 male, female middle school and college students in Daegu and Kyungbuk areas. SPSS 14.0 program was used to analyze frequency, cross-tabs, factor analysis, t-test, and K-mean cluster analysis for collected data. The research showed following conclusions. First, I found the 5 factors of Blog utilizing motives, 2 Blog utilizing behavior factors and 3 factors of the reduced interest toward Blog. Second, Blog utilizing motives, Blog utilizing behavior, and reasons for reduced interest have mutual direct influences. Third, by Blog using motive and behavior of participants, cluster analysis was conducted. They were divided into the passive Blog user group and the active Blog user one. Active user group had 236 participants and passive user group had 169. Active user group experienced more disappointment in Blog contents, felt more burdens in management, reduced interest and side effects than passive user. Active user group had higher Blog utilization, higher ratio of female students and more college students.
Background: Hydrogels can serve as three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for cell culture and be readily injected into the body. Recent advances in the image technology for 3D scaffolds like hydrogels have attracted considerable attention to overcome the drawbacks of ordinary imaging technologies such as optical and fluorescence microscopy. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an effective method based on the excitation of two-photons. In the present study, C2C12 myoblasts differentiated in 3D gelatin hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (GHPA) hydrogels were imaged by using a custom-built multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy to compare the difference in the imaging capacity between conventional microscopy and MPM. Results: The physicochemical properties of GHPA hydrogels were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the cell viability and proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts cultured in the GHPA hydrogels were analyzed by using Live/Dead Cell and CCK-8 assays, respectively. It was found that C2C12 cells were well grown and normally proliferated in the hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogels were shown to be suitable to facilitate the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells incubated in differentiation media, which had been corroborated by MPM. It was very hard to get clear images from a fluorescence microscope. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the gelatin-based hydrogels can be beneficially utilized as 3D scaffolds for skeletal muscle engineering and that MPM can be effectively applied to imaging technology for tissue regeneration.
서론: IgG4 연관병증은 조직에 IgG4 양성의 림프 형질세포가 다량으로 침윤되고 혈중 IgG4가 증가되는 것을 특징으로 하는 전신질환이다. 가장 흔히 침범되는 장기는 췌장이고, 두경부에는 주로 침샘, 눈물샘에 나타나며 다른 부위의 침범은 매우 드물다. 저자들은 좌측 상악골과 주위 연조직을 침범한 거짓림프종양 IgG4 연관병증을 경험하여 보고하는 바이다. 증례: 49세 남자 환자가 좌측 볼의 종물을 주소로 내원하였다. 두경부 전산화단층촬영에서 상악골을 침범하는 연부조직 종괴가 관찰되었으며(Fig. 1), 자기공명영상에서는 종괴가 좌측 볼의 심부 점막 하층에서 상악골, 상악동을 침범하고 있음이 관찰되었다(Fig. 2). 검사실 소견은 WBC 4,720/μL, Hb 15.5 g/μL, PLT 220,000/μL, ESR 68mm/H, AST 35 IU/L, ALT 35 IU/L, T-bil 0.53 mg/dL, TP 8.55 g/dL, Alb 4.25 g/dL였다. 종괴의 FNA에서 악성세포는 관찰되지 않았으나 절개생검에서는 림프절처럼 보일 정도의 심한 림프형질세포의 침윤이 관찰되었다(Fig. 3). 다형성 림프구와 형질세포로 구성된 종괴로서 이들 세포가 균등하게 침윤되어 있었다. 면역조직화학염색에서 Ki-67 양성 세포는 20% 이하로 관찰되었다. 면역글로블린 염색에서 IgG에 강한 양성을 보였으며, 주된 아류형은 IgG4였다(Fig. 4). IgG4/IgG 비율은 약 80%이고 B림프구와 T림프구가 균등하게 분포되어 있어 거짓림프종 형태의 IgG4 연관병증에 부합한 소견을 보였다. 추가적으로 시행한 혈청 IgG, IgG4는 IgG 2,956 mg/dL, IgG4 29.6 mg/dL였다. 상악골을 침범한 두경부 연부조직의 거짓림프종양 IgG4 연관병증으로 진단하고 prednisolone 40 mg/day을 투여하였다. 수일 후부터 종괴의 크기는 급격히 감소하였고, 재발 없이 거의 소실되어 prednisolone 5 mg/day으로 감량하여 외래에서 경과 관찰중이다.
This teaching-learning process is an example of an actual poetry class in middle schools, considering how to make students interpret poetry for themselves, how to make them understand the organic relationship between each element of poetry and its formation, and how to share aesthetic experiences with them by poetry. For independent interpretation of poetry, this teaching-learning process focuses on the process of ‘story making’ by five W’s and one H. And its principal purpose is to make students interpret each poem for themselves guided by the questions of a teacher. Especially, it tries to overcome decreasing role of a teacher under the increasing importance of students’ participation in the class. And it is designed based on the criticism that teaching-learning processes of a literature class has been developed concentrating on reading activities. After making students interpret poetry primarily by the process of ‘story making,’ teachers lead them to accept poetic images and expressions related to its theme. Therefore, students can know that literary techniques are not just a theory but they are organically related to form a theme of poetry and thus they can experience their use and meaning. This experience is regarded as useful for students to understand the formation of poetry. Research on independent interpretation of poetry, literary techniques and themes results in aesthetic experiences which can make students feel the poetic emotions and be moved by them. The essential purpose of aesthetic experiences, which is different from other learning purposes of a Korean language class, is to get an artistic impression. Nonetheless, these experiences tend to be neglected during the class partly because they are possible only when teachers’ deep understanding and sympathy on poetry is successfully delivered to their students. However, a lot of interests and research from teachers should be needed because aesthetic experiences are the ultimate aim of literature classes including poetry. Introduction of this teaching-learning process aims at the materialization of actual classes and application based on it. However, research on teaching-learning process, sharing of experiences, etc. cannot help but have essential limitations. Because even if a certain model is applied to actual classes, teaching-learning method of each class should be adjusted each time according to the plan of a teacher, personality and ability of the teacher, the condition of students, etc. Therefore, it can be defined as the reality of professionality of a teacher.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-achievement, perception and satisfaction of group discussion and presentation in medical philosophy class. Methods : A questionnaire was developed based on topical subject of main textbook of medical philosophy and course evaluation reported by students. The questionnaire composed of self-learning achievement for the seven subjects, perception of necessity and profitability of contents and education method of medical philosophy and satisfaction with components of education method and overall class. Results : The data were collected from 250 medical students who complete the course of medical philosophy. Regardless of grade and gender, students reported high self-achievement, perception and overall satisfaction of medical philosophy course, but there were difference in satisfaction of components of each education methods. Students recognized positively as discussion and presentation in philosophy class, but had low awareness of the benefits of private small-group activities. The more students regarded it is beneficial for the contents and methods of philosophy classes, the overall satisfaction with the medical philosophy course was high. And the more students regarded it is necessary to educate and beneficial for the contents and methods of philosophy classes, the satisfaction with the education methods of medical philosophy course was high. Conclusion : To improve the achievement level and satisfaction with the philosophy course, it is necessary to induce active interest in small group activities, and provide detailed and various discussion materials in class.