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      • 화학요법제가 마우스의 비특이 세포성면역에 미치는 영향

        김경원,윤정구 대한미생물학회 1988 大韓微生物學會誌 Vol.23 No.1

        Non-specific cellular immunity may play an important role in the immune defense mechanism against tumors and has recently become of great interest to many researchers. Among the effector cells involved in non-specific cellular immune reactions, natural killer(NK) cells and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity(ADCC) effector cells are the principal targets in many of the investigations studying the hosts immune defense aginst tumors. In general most chemotherapeutic agents are known to depress host immune functions. However, such an effect in non-specific cellular immunity particulary on NK cell and ADCC activities has not been fully determined. In this report, the effects of 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) and adriamycin(ADM), which are widely used for the chemotherapy of human cancer, on mouse NK and ADCC activities were studied. Adult ICR mice were injected with either one of the drugs or a combination of them and then at given interval, splenocytes were collected. NK and ADCC activities were measured in vitro using a 4hr ^(51)Cr release assay employing YAC-1 and L1210 target cells respectively. The following results were obtained. 1, The administration of different doses of 5-FU or ADM either alone or in combination resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of NK activity 48 hours post injection. In these experiments, the doses which showed the most significant inhibition were 12.0mg/ml and 1.2mg/ml or greater for 5-FU and ADM respectively. No difference in NK activity was observed between mice treated with the drugs in combination. In contrast, assays of AD- CC activity in splenocytes from the same mice showed no appreciable change in the level of cytotoxicity. 2. Kinetic studies revealed t4at splenocytes from mice treated with a single dose of 5-FU (12mg/kg) or ADM(1.2mg/kg) alone or in combination showed significantly decreased levels of NK activity 48 72 hours after treatment. Thereafter NK activity progressively increased and reacked the level of the controls at 7 days. Again, no significant changes in ADCC activity were observed in these experiments. 3. Splenocytes from mice treated 48 hours previously with the drugs significantly suppressed the NK activity of normal mice. 4. Futhermore, these splenacytes had an impaired in-vitro production of interleukin-2 as compared to those from normal controls. In conclusion, mice treated with 5-FU or ADM either alone or in combination, exhibited significantly depressed NK activities 2 3 days after treatment, but the level of ADCC activity was not effected. This suggest that NK-suppressing mechanisms which involve the appearance and activation of suppressor cells and which impair the production of interleukin-2, may de- velope following chemotherapy.

      • KCI등재

        The New Definition of Creative Leadership in the Communication Design Industry- Focused on the 4th Industrial Revolution

        김경원 한국콘텐츠학회 2019 International Journal of Contents Vol.15 No.2

        The aim of this paper is to discuss how designers lead and direct ‘technology-driven society’ using their creative communication skill. To this end, it is required for communication designers to take conscious steps to recognize the future direction of their profession. Despite the advancement in technology, there is a human being at the center of all design activities. From a certain point of view, contemporary communication design takes an open-ended exploration of the subject matter, rather than a finished output. The notion of creative leadership may potentially expand more in terms of improving the methodology of today’s visual culture. The paper will examine creative leadership that could be proposed by the challenge of discourse upon the upcoming industrial revolution. Today, communication designers are confronted by new leadership opportunities and challenges. Some leading designers seem to focus on brand new media technologies to prepare the 4th industrial revolutions. However, communication design cannot be discussed in the medium but can be understood as a process. Top-down and bottom-up process is always a concerned about the relationship since the focus of leadership has changed. In the top-down process, the leadership has existed between ‘designer and client’ because designers have played their role as a problem solver. On the other hand, there is a different model of leadership between ‘design and technology’ based on bottom-up process, which stem from the design authorship. In this regard, the new definition of creative leadership in the 4th industrial revolution proposes a designer as a problem-finder based on the relationship between the ‘designer and the public’.

      • KCI등재

        초등 과학 수업에서 공감능력에 따른 집단 구성이 학생들의 집단 창의성 발현에 미치는 영향

        김경원,양희선,강성주 한국초등과학교육학회 2019 초등과학교육 Vol.38 No.1

        This study aimed to identify the effects of students’ empathy ability on group creativity, when elementary school students perform scientific activity designed to express group creativity. A total of 12 elementary students from a fifth-grade science club participated in this study. A pretest to examine the students’ empathic ability was performed to classify them into three groups: A group with high, low and heterogeneous empathic members. The linguistic interaction was analyzed to determine the process of group creativity manifestation; the results were classified into ‘metacognitive’, ‘cognitive’, and ‘social-communicative’. As a result, groups with high empathic ability showed more frequent interaction in monitoring, planning, and divergent thinking. On the other hand, in the case of the group with low level of empathy, it was confirmed that there are many interactions related to regulation, convergent thinking, and noncohesive prosocial interaction. Also, in the case of heterogeneous group with empathy ability, group creativity utterance on all sides was relatively higher than other groups. As a result of this study, we could confirm the influence of empathy as a strategy to help the group creativity and discuss the educational implications.

      • KCI등재

        차익거래압력과 교차상장된 주식간의 주식가격 정보이전 효과 –중국 주식의 A과 H주를 중심으로-

        김경원 한국국제경영관리학회 2018 국제경영리뷰 Vol.22 No.4

        The discount of B shares and H shares of Chinese firms decreased after the liberalization of the Chinese market. However, The discount of H shares did not decrease significantly, compared with that of B shares. This paper examined the transmission of pricing information of cross-listed shares between class A and class H shares of the Chinese firms after the post-liberalization period. This paper hypothesized that if the price disparity between the two shares became larger, the effect of the price disparity on the transmission of pricing information would be stronger due to the increased price arbitrage pressure. Previous study showed that price disparity or arbitrage pressure could have an effect on the transmission of pricing information of cross-listed shares only during the pre-liberalization period of Chinese markets. Adopting more samples and extending sample period, this paper examined it furthermore after the post-liberalization period. Employing a GJR-GARCH(1,1)-M model, this paper found that there were significant differences in estimates of mean spillover coefficients between the low price discount firms and the high price discount firms. There was also stronger mean spillover effect for the high price disparity firms, compared with the low price disparity firms. However, there were not strong consistent patterns for volatility and leverage spillover effects. Overall, the empirical results showed that the transmission of pricing information was stronger for the high price discount firms than for the low price discount firms. Thus, this paper found that the arbitrage pressure due to the price disparity could have an effect on the transmission of pricing information even after the post-liberalization period. 중국 주식시장의 가장 큰 특징은 내국인 투자자와 외국인 투자자를 분리함에 있고 또한 중국 주식은 여러 가지 이름으로 해외시장에 상장 되어 있다. 중국시장에서 외국인주식(B 주)이 국내주식(A 주)보다 할인되어 거래되고 또한 B 주와 마찬가지로 홍콩시장에 상장된 H 주도 할인되어 거래가 이루어지고 있다. 본 논문에서는 동일한 주식이 비슷한 거래시간대의 다른 거래 시장인 중국 A 주 시장과 홍콩 H 주 시장 간에 교차상장된 두 주식들간의 가격정보 전달과정을 분석하였다. 만약 교차상장된 개별주식에서 가격 차이가 많이 나면 이로 인한 차익거래 압력이 정보전달과정에 큰 영향을 주는 것으로 판단된다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 가격차이로 인한 차익거래 압력이 가격전달 속도에 영향을 미치는가에 대한 가설을 검정하였다. 또한 시장 개혁 개방 이후 시점에서 할인율이 작아진 시점에서도 교차상장된 주식들은 개별주식간에 할인율의 차이에 따라 교차상장된 주식간의 가격차이가 주식 별로 다르다. 이러한 차익거래 압력의 차이가 가격정보효과에 미치는 영향을 비교 분석하였다. 실증분석 결과 첫 번째 방향으로 중국 A 주 주식들에서 홍콩 H 주 주식들로의 정보이전 효과와 그 반대 방향인 홍콩 H 주 주식들에서 중국 A 주 주식들로의 정보이전 효과의 양 방향에서 모두 교차상장된 A 주와 H 주 사이의 가격차이에 의한 차익거래의 압력의 차이가 주가 정보전이에 영향을 미침을 알 수 있었다. 또한 홍콩 H 주식들에서 중국 A 주 주식들로의 정보이전 효과가 중국 A 주 주식들에서 홍콩 H 주 주식들로의 정보이전 효과 보다 더 강해 본국주도가설과 보다는 정보의 영향력이 있는 선진 시장에서 본국시장으로 전달된다고 볼 수 있었다.

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