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Objectives : The purpose of this study is to review the characteristics of patients who visited the emergency room of a Korean medical hospital with musculoskeletal disorders during the last 5 years and to provide a potential basis for future studies and emergency medical practice. Methods : Patient visit records between May 1st, 2010 and February 28th, 2015 were reviewed and patients with musculoskeletal disorders were included in a retrospective analysis. Results : A total of 5,218 patient visit records were initially reviewed and 1,485 patients (28.46 %) were included in the analysis. S code group was the most frequently diagnosed coding group of Korean Standard Classification of Diseases. The male to female ratio was 1.05:1 and patients in their thirties represented the highest age group. When classified by time of visit, the distribution of patients was similar from 10:00 to 22:59. The most frequently visited day and month were Sunday and September. 879 patients (59.19 %) visited the emergency room within 24 hours from onset of symptoms. The most common symptom site was the low back (45.59 %), followed by ankle (13.94 %) and neck (13.80 %). The most frequently used treatment method was acupuncture (92.32 %), followed by infrared (45.45 %), TENS (30.03 %) and herbal medication (29.02 %). The follow-up and admission rates were 30.24 % and 13.00 % respectively. 343 patients (23.10 %) received Western medical treatment within a day before visiting the emergency room of the Korean medical hospital. Conclusions : This analysis provides the latest information on the characteristics of patients who visited the emergency room of a Korean medical hospital with musculoskeletal disorders. The results can provide the basis for further studies and for other attempts to improve the clinical setting of the emergency room.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
In Korea, real estate accounts for a greater part of household assets comparing to other countries. Accordingly, influential power of and interest in real estate price are great. Because of characteristics of housing market, apartment sales is not happening in every local government and new apartment supply is varied by real estate market status. For this reason, there are problems in calculating and estimating apartment sales price. To calculate average sales price supplementing these difficulties, moving average for 12 years is commonly used. However, this method may introduce smoothing effects and it may not represent the rapidly changing real estate market. The purpose of this study is to develop sub-indicators providing information on apartment sales price by resolving these problems. Additionally, in Korea investors aiming at trading profit make market overheated and end users become the victims of overheated market. Recently, new policy has been announced to resolve this issue and housing for 1 million households will be supplied for 2 years. To respond to this plan, this study tries to estimate sales price of apartment houses by reviewing and classifying lands according to purpose of land use and classification of residential area based on average sales price in Pusan Metropolitan City and average publicly notified individual land price in 16 Gus and Guns and applying regression model to the values. In the analysis, regression model classified as residential area showed excellent predictive power. 부동산이 가계자산에서 차지하는 비중은 우리나라가 다른 나라에 비해 상당히 높다. 그로 인해 부동산가격이 가계경제에 미치는 파급력과 관심도 높다. 분양시장의 특성상 전국의 모든 시군구에서의 분양은 이루어지지 않고, 신규공급물량은 부동산 경기에 따라 차이가 크다. 이러한 이유로 분양가격을 산출하는데 문제점이 존재하고, 이를 보완하여 평균분양가격을 구하기 위해 12개월 이동평균을 이용하고 있다. 그러나 이러한 방법은 평활화현상이 나타나기 때문에 변화하는 부동산 시장을 반영하기에는 어려움이 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 이러한 문제점을 보완하여 분양가격에 대한 정보를 제공함으로써 보조지표 개발을 위한 기초자료로 활용하고자 한다. 또한 현재 우리나라에는 전매차익을 노리는 투자자들의 과도한 유입으로 실수요자들의 피해가 커지고 있는 상황이다. 그로 인하여 최근 부동산대책이 새로 발표되었으며, 추후 2년 이내 전국 100만 가구 분양이 계획되어 있다. 이에 대응하여 부산광역시의 평균분양가격과 16개 구․군의 평균공시지가를 기준으로 지목과 주거지의 분류를 통하여 회귀모형을 적용하고 분양가격을 예측한다. 그 결과 주거지로 분류된 회귀모형이 우수한 예측력을 보였다.
Visnagin (4-methoxy-7-methyl-5H-furo[3,2-g]-benzopyran-5-one), which is an active principle extracted from the fruits of Ammi visnaga, has been used as a treatment for low blood-pressure and blocked blood vessel contraction by inhibition of calcium influx into blood cells. However, the neuroprotective effect of visnagin was not clearly known until now. Thus, we investigated whether visnagin has a neuroprotective effect against kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal cell death. In the cresyl violet staining, pre-treatment or post-treatment visnagin (100 mg/kg, p.o. or i.p.) showed a neuroprotective effect on KA (0.1 μg) toxicity. KA-induced gliosis and proinflammatory marker (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2) inductions were also suppressed by visnagin administration. These results suggest that visnagin has a neuroprotective effect in terms of suppressing KA-induced pathogenesis in the brain, and that these neuroprotective effects are associated with its anti-inflammatory effects.
In this study, double layer KTN/STO thin films were fabricated on $Pt/Ti/SiO_2/Si$ substrate, their structural and electrical properties were measured according with the number of STO coatings, and their applicability to microwave materials was investigated. The average grain size was about 80~90 nm, the average thickness of the 6-coated KTN thin film was about 320 nm, and the average thickness of the STO thin film coated once was about 45~50 nm. The dielectric constant decreased with increasing frequency, and as the number of STO coatings increased, the rate of change of the dielectric constant with the applied electric field decreased. The tunability of the KTN thin film showed a maximum value of 19.8% at 3 V. The figure of merit of the KTN/1STO thin film was 9.8 at 3 V.
Skull base osteomyelitis is originated from inappropriately treated chronic infections near the skull base. If diagnosis and treatment are delayed, it occasionally causes multiple cranial nerve palsy, with the mortality rate being as high as 60%. Skull base osteomyelitis typically evolves as a complication of external otitis in diabetic patients, so it has been thought as a synonym for malignant external otitis. However, the routes of infection are diverse. We experienced two patients of atypical skull base osteomyelitis after mastoidectomy. It is an unusual complication of mastoidectomy, so we report about these cases.
Background and Objectives:Intratympanic gentamicin injection is used as one of the treatment modalities for medically intractable Meniere’s disease. But the ideal dosage and concentration of gentamicin were not established in consideration of therapeutic efficacy and the risk of postoperative hearing loss. We analyzed the clinical outcome of low-concentration intratympanic gentamicin injection in patients with Meniere’s disease. And we also tried to find factors anticipating for the response to treatment. Subjects and Method:A retrospective review was conducted on 45 subjects who had been diagnosed as ‘definite’ Meniere’s disease (AAO-HNS, 1995) and had no response to medical treatment over 3 months in our clinic. The concentration of gentamicin was 7 mg/cc, which was very low compared with previous studies. We reviewed postoperative changes on vertigo, tinnitus and hearing by questionnaire and pure tone audiometry. We also analyzed preoperative patients’ characteristics for acquisition of predictive factors of treatment response. Results:Vertigo was completely disappeared in 37 (82%) patients and there was no vertigo improvement in 8 (18%) patients despite multiple injections. Tinnitus was controlled in 11 (24%) patients, and aggravated in 4 (8%) patients. A significant postoperative hearing loss over 10 dB occurred in only 6 (13%) patients. Preoperative patients’ hearing threshold, frequency of vertigo, functional level and finding in electrical test, such as electrocochleogram, were not different regarding treatment response. Conclusion:Low-concentration gentamicin was enough to control vertigo and could reduce the risk of postoperative hearing loss in patients with Meniere’s disease.
Objectives. This study investigated the outcomes of uvula-preserving palatopharyngoplasty (UPPPP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods. Twenty men with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome received the UPPPP operation at our institution. We measured symptom changes after UPPPP using a visual analog scale (VAS), and all patients were examined with polysomnography pre- and post-operatively. ‘Surgical success’ was defined as reduction in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) to below 20 events per hour and more than 50% post-operative reduction. Results. Snoring decreased significantly (6.7±2.3 to 3.7±2.9 on VAS, P=0.002) but the postoperative globus sense did not differ from that preoperatively (2.0±2.4 to 2.1±2.7 on VAS, P=0.79). Apnea and apnea-hypopnea indices were significantly reduced after UPPPP (34.7±20 to 24.2±17.2 events/hour, P=0.029). The surgical success rate was 40% regardless of Friedman stage. There was significant reduction in the AHI on supine sleep in both surgically successful and unsuccessful patient groups. Conclusion. UPPPP may minimize postoperative globus sense and other complications, with a success rate comparable to that of previously reported surgical methods in OSAS patients. In addition, it may reduce the apnea-hypopnea index in the supine sleep position.
Background and Objectives:Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands has distinct characteristics of indolent but persistent growth, late onset of metastasis and eventual death of patients. We performed this study to find parameters affecting the recurrence and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma in salivary glands. Subjects and Method:A retrospective study was done on 55 patients who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2006. We analyzed the effect of patient’s factors, characteristics of tumor and treatment modalities to local recurrence, distant metastasis and survival. Results:There were 20 males and 35 females, with the median age of 50.2 years. The mean follow-up duration after treatment was 70.9 months. Patients who received surgery alone were 12 (22%), with radiation therapy were 34 (62%) and with concurrent chemoradiation therapy were 9 (16%). There were 7 patients who had local recurrence alone, 8 who had distant metastasis alone and 3 who had local recurrence with distant metastasis. There was no correlation between the above parameters and local recurrence. Distant metastasis was influenced by old age (p= 0.018), lymph node involvement (p=0.005) and treatment with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (p<0.001). Eight patients died during the follow up period. Five-year overall survival rate was 88.2% and the disease-free survival was 72.9%. The multivariate analysis found that only lymph node involvement was associated with survival (p=0.043). Conclusion:Lymph node involvement was predictive of poor prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. Therefore, it is necessary to establish highly sensitive diagnostic tools with which surgeons can find lymph node involvement.