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      • KCI등재

        Fiber Laser Welding in the Car Body Shop - Laser Seam Stepper versus Remote Laser Welding -

        Kessler, Berthold The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2013 대한용접·접합학회지 Vol.31 No.4

        The excellent beam quality of high power fiber lasers are commonly used for remote welding applications in body job applications. The Welding speed and productivity is unmatched with any other welding technology including resistance spot welding or traditional laser welding. High tooling cost for clamping and bulky safety enclosures are obstacles which are limiting the use. With the newly developed Laser stitch welding gun we have an integrated clamping in the process tool and the laser welding is shielded in a way that no external enclosure is needed. Operation of this laser welding gun is comparable with resistance spot welding but 2-times faster. Laser stitch welding is faster than spot welding and slower than remote welding. It is a laser welding tool with all the laser benefits like welding of short flanges, weld ability of Ultra High Strength steel, 3 layers welding and Aluminium welding. Together with low energy consumption and minimum operation cost of IPG fiber laser it is a new and sharp tool for economic car body assembly.

      • Study on the Simultaneous Control of the Seam tracking and Leg Length in a Horizontal Fillet Welding Part 1: Analysis and Measurement of the Weld Bend Geometry

        Moon, H.S.,Na, S.J. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2001 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.1 No.1

        Among the various welding conditions, the welding current that is inversely proportional to the tip-to-work-piece distance is an essential parameter as to monitor the GMAW process and to implement the welding automation. Considering the weld pool surface geometry including weld defects, it should modify the signal processing method for automatic seam tracking in horizontal fillet welding. To meet the above necessities, a mathematical model related with the weld pool geometry was proposed as in a conjunction with the two-dimensional heat flow analysis of the horizontal fillet welding. The signal processing method based on the artificial neural network (Adaptive Resonance Theory) was proposed for discriminating the sound weld pool surface from that with the weld defects. The reliability of the numerical model and the signal processing method proposed were evaluated through the experiments of which showed that they are effective for predicting the weld bead shape with or without the weld defects in a horizontal fillet welding.

      • KCI등재

        Pulse TIG welding: Process, Automation and Control

        Baghel, P.K.,Nagesh, D.S. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2017 대한용접·접합학회지 Vol.35 No.1

        Pulse TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding is often considered the most difficult of all the welding processes commonly used in industry. Because the welder must maintain a short arc length, great care and skill are required to prevent contact between the electrode and the workpiece. Pulse TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel, non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, magnesium and copper alloys. It is significantly slower than most other welding techniques and comparatively more complex and difficult to master as it requires greater welder dexterity than MIG or stick welding. The problems associated with manual TIG welding includes undercutting, tungsten inclusions, porosity, Heat affected zone cracks and also the adverse effect on health of welding gun operator due to amount of tungsten fumes produced during the welding process. This brings the necessity of automation. Hence, In this paper an attempt has been made to build a customerized setup of Pulse TIG welding based on through review of Pulse TIG welding parameters. The cost associated for making automated TIG is found to be low as compared to SPM (Special Purpose machines) available in the market.

      • KCI등재

        Optimization of arc brazing process parameters for exhaust system parts using box-behnken design of experiment

        Kim, Yong,Park, Pyeong-Won,Park, Ki-Young,Ryu, Jin-Chul The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2015 대한용접·접합학회지 Vol.33 No.2

        Stainless steel is used in automobile muffler and exhaust systems. However, in comparison with other steels it has a high thermal expansion rate and low thermal conductivity, and undergoes excessive thermal deformation after welding. To address this problem, we evaluated the use of arc brazing in place of welding for the processing of an exhaust system, and investigated the parameters that affect the joint characteristics. Muffler parts STS439 and hot-dipped Al coated steel were used as test specimens, and CuAl brazing wire was used as the filler metal for the cold metal transfer (CMT) welding machine, which is a low heat input arc welder. In addition, a Box-Behnken design of experiment was used, which is a response surface methodology. The main process parameters (current, speed, and torch angle) were used to determine the appropriate welding quality and the mechanical properties of the brazing part was evaluated at the optimal welding condition. The optimal processing condition for arc brazing was 135A current, 51cm/min speed and $74^{\circ}$ torch angle. The process was applied to an actual exhaust system muffler and the prototype was validated by thermal fatigue, thermal shock, and endurance limit tests.

      • Stress Intensity Factor for the Cracked Plate Reinforce with a Plate by Seam Welding

        Kim, O.W.,Park, S.D.,Lee, Y.H. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2001 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.1 No.2

        The stress intensity factor has been calculated theoretically for the cracked plate subjected to remote normal stress and reinforced with a plate by symmetric seam welding. The singular integral equation was derived based on displacement compatibility condition between the cracked plate and the reinforcement plate, and solved by means of Erdogan and Gupta's method. The results from the derived equation for stress intensity factor were compared with FEM solutions and seems to be reasonable. The reinforcement effect gets better as welding line is closer to the crack and the stiffness ratio of the cracked plate and the reinforcement plate becomes larger.

      • Comparative Study on the Weldability of Different Shipbuilding Steels

        Laitinen, R.,Porter, D.,Dahmen, M.,Kaierle, S.,Poprawe, R. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2002 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.2 No.2

        A comparison of the welding performance of ship hull structural steels has been made. The weldability of steels especially designed for laser processing was compared to that of conventional hull and structural steels with plate thicknesses up to 12 mm. Autogenous laser beam welding was used to weld butt joints as well as skid and stake welded T-joints. The welds were assessed in accordance with the document "The Classification Societies" Requirements for Approval of $CO_2$ Laser Welding Procedures" Small imperfections in the weld only grew slightly in root bend tests and they only had a minor influence on the fatigue properties of laser fillet welded joints. In Charpy impact tests, the 27 J transition temperature of the weld metal and HAZ ranged from below -60 to $-50^{\circ}C$. The amount of martensite in the weld metal depended on the carbon equivalent of the steel with the highest amounts and highest hardness levels in conventional EH 36 (389 HV 5). Thermomechanically rolled steels contained less martensite and showed a correspondingly lower maximum hardness.ximum hardness.

      • Temperature Dependent Behavior of Thermal and Electrical Contacts during Resistance Spot Welding

        Kim, E. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2002 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.2 No.1

        The thermal contact conductance at different temperatures and with different electrode forces and zinc coating morphology was measured by monitoring the infrared emissions from the one dimensionally simulated contact heat transfer experiments. The contact heat transfer coefficients were presented as a function of the harmonic mean temperature of the two contacting surfaces. Using these contact heat transfer coefficients and experimentally measured temperature profiles, the electrical contact resistivities both for the faying interface and electrode-workpiece interface were deduced from the numerical analyses of the one dimension simulation welding. It was found that the average value of the contact heat transfer coefficients for the material with zinc coating (coating weight from 0 g/$mm^2$to 100 g/$mm^2$) ranges from 0.05 W/$mm^2$$^{\circ}C$ to 2.0 W/$mm^2$$^{\circ}C$ in the temperature range above 5$0^{\circ}C$ harmonic mean temperature of the two contacting surfaces. The electrical contact resistivity deduced from the one dimension simulation welding and numerical analyses showed that the ratio of electrical contact resistivity at the laying interface to the electrical contact resistivity at the electrode interface is smaller than one far both bare steel and zinc coated steel.

      • Weldability of Type 444 Ferritic Stainless Steel GTA Welds

        Li, C.,Jeong, H.S. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2003 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.3 No.1

        The ferritic stainless steels are generally considered to have poor weldability compared with that of the austenitic stainless steels. However the primary advantages of ferritic stainless steels include lower material cost than the more commonly used austenitic stainless steels and a greater resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Thus, the weldability of ferritic stainless steels was investigated in this study. In concerning the weldability, Grain size measurement test, Erichsen test and Varestraint test were involved. full penetration welds were produced by autogeneous direct current straight polarity (DCSP) and pulsed currents gas tungsten arc welding (GIAW) and the effect of pulsed currents welding on the welds was compared to that of DCSP welding. The results showed that pulsed current was effective to refine grain size in the weld metal and the finest grain size was obtained at the frequency of 150Hz. In addition, the ductility of welds was lower than that of base metal. Finally, autogeneous type 444 welds were less susceptible to macro solidification cracks, but more sensitive to micro cracks; SEM/EDS analysis indicated that all the inclusions in the crack showed enrichment of Mn, Si, O and S.

      • Development of Laser Vision Sensor with Multi-line for High Speed Lap Joint Welding

        Sung, K.,Rhee, S. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2002 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.2 No.2

        Generally, the laser vision sensor makes it possible design a highly reliable and precise range sensor at a low cost. When the laser vision sensor is applied to lap joint welding, however. there are many limitations. Therefore, a specially-designed hardware system has to be used. However, if the multi-lines are used instead of a single line, multi-range data .:an be generated from one image. Even under a set condition of 30fps, the generated 2D range data increases depending on the number of lines used. In this study, a laser vision sensor with a multi-line pattern is developed with conventional CCD camera to carry out high speed seam tracking in lap joint welding.

      • Effect of the Mg Content on the Solidification Cracking Susceptibility of the Al-Mg Alloy Laser Welds

        Yoon, J.W. The Korean Welding and Joining Society 2001 International journal of Korean welding society Vol.1 No.1

        The solidification cracking susceptibilities of Al-Mg alloy laser welds were assessed using self-restraint tapered specimen crack test. The dependence of cracking susceptibility of Al-Mg alloy laser welds on Mg contents was observed to be similar to that of arc welds in the same materials. The cracking susceptibility of Al-Mg alloy laser welds increased as Mg content increased up to 1.6-1.9 wt.% and then it decreased as Mg content increased further. The peak cracking susceptibility occurred at around 1.6 to 1.9 wt.% Mg for both autogenous and wire feed welds. It was also observed that the cracking susceptibility decreased as the grain size of Al-Mg alloy laser welds decreased, when Mg content was in the range higher than 1.9 wt.%.

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