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During the first half of 20th century, Korean had experienced the anxiety of ages such as the colonial period against the Japanese imperialism(1910~ 1945), the division of Korea(1948) and the Korean War (1950~1953), and the activities for democracy during 1960s. At that time, because of the unclear forecast for the Korean Nation's future, the Korean intellectuals' anxiety on ages were more sensitive than the ordinary people. Even though they were conscious of the crises of their lives, they also made the alternative proposals to Korean people for overcoming the anxieties of ages. Among the these intellectuals, I will focus on the Cho Ji-Hun's life (1920~1969) and his writings on the anxiety of ages. Cho’s career as a poet, professor for Korean literature, cultural is very suggestive for our study of the Korean Studies and the intellectual history in modern Korean history. Like other Korean people, he also experienced the enforcement of collaboration on the Pacific War, the panic of the division of Korea and the Korean War, and the injustice of dictatorship. In these situations, in general, people were addicted to both pessimism and sardonic. However, Cho overcame these anxieties based on the standard of political fidelity. This paper examines his three books which were published since 1960s. The themes of these books are Korean culture, Korean modern history against Japan Imperialism, and his thoughts on the political issues. Following his activities and writings, he faced a difficult situation with rosy perspective of Korean Nation. He also suggested the guide lines for Korean Studies and the solutions of Koreans's re-unification as a single Nation. For the purpose of these activities, he established some criteria which effectively with the anxiety of ages. First, his evaluation of persons are based on the fidelity. Second, his re-writing on Korean national history for the democracy. Third, his emphasis on the Korean identities were helpful for the Korean re-unification. But we do not clearly distinguish his works on Korean culture's excellency from the dictatorship's activities on Korean culture's studying. These answer will find in examination on the Korean Studies in 1960s.
Wol-Sa Jeong-Ku Lee was a prominent man of writing diplomatic documents and papers during the King Sun-Jo period in Lee's Kingdom dynasty, and he consolidated his critical political subordinate chair while performing proctoral and prime educational ministries. But upon roaring of the new king Kwang-Hae Gun, as his political oppositions north party took leadership, he started to suffer a number of political persecutions and hardships such as Kye-Chook prison death and revolt rumors. Based on these political ordeal background, this paper covers Jeong Ku Lee's poetical themes rooted in his political adversities on three topics. Frist, he expressed condolences and sympathy for the political fellows who had been harassed and persecuted for the similar reasons, and his consistent political idealism and confidence were represented through his compositions. In particular, he mourned his senior political leader Hang-Bok Lee, who had been exiled and died of long endured disease while maintained his consistent political creeds. Second, his poems expressed his regrets and guilty feeling rather than antagonism against his opponents eventhough he had been persecuted through their counteractions; he attributed his exiled situations to his innermost reasons rather than other evil wills. Third, his poems delineated his loyalty, faithfulness, and patriotism toward his country and kingdom, and concerns about nation's future. Despite his hardship and persecution, his expressed his political idealism through deep metaphors, and ultimately inspired regrets and harmonies for the entire political rivals.
Shin Chaeho found that the cause of losing sovereignty was absence of nationalism. He thought flunkeyism and tradition that worshiping literary art and despising military art did away with nationalism in Korea. He thought Korean people had no patriotism in 20th century, the age of competition because of the Flunkeyism. Also, he thought the tradition worshiping literary art and despising military art from Goryeo Dynasty(高麗) eliminated ancient Korean tradition of martialism and Korea was becoming more and more effeminate ever since. He thought this Korea’s effeminacy was chronic disease through Chosun Dynasty(朝鮮). So he thought Korean was bent solely upon mooching off powerful nation far from competition at that time. Shin Chaeho insisted that Korea should remove the Flunkeyism and the bad tradition for fostering people’s nationalism. And he insisted martialism for remedying Korea’s effeminacy. He thought Korea should seek martialism because there was no way to live without martialism in 20th century. So he thought Korea should resurrect Goguryeo(高句麗)’s tradition and carry out military education for arousing martialism and nationalism as Japan and Sparta did. He tried to arouse martialism and nationalism with history. Like this, he wanted to overcome the flunkeyism and the tradition that worshiping literary art and despising military, and to inspire martialism and nationalism into Korean people.
This article reviews political and social activities of Pro-Japanese Confucian, Yang Bong-Je(梁鳳濟). Born in 1851, Yang studies under Park Moon-Il(朴文一) from School of Hwaseo(華西學派), and began his career as an aristocrat in 1879, after passing the National Examination for Civil Service. Despite his School of origin, which was one of the most conventional schools of Confucianism, he embraced the New Learning(新學) and converted himself into the Reformed Confucian. During his time as a local governor Yang also supported school establishments, understanding importance of cultivating peoples’ capabilities. As such, Yang’s activities during 19th century shows that he worked as a devoted aristocrat of Joseon Monarch and later Daehan Empire, as a celebrity of North Pyongan Province. But evidences from 20th century shows that Yang chose different path from his past ones. In October 30th, 1912, Yang Bong-Je, appointed by the Government General of Korea, worked as Lecturer of North Pyongan Provincial Gyeonghagwon(經學院) for 14 years, until his death in 1926. From then on his activities were Pro-Japanese, such as giving provincial lecture tours that insisted on obeying policies of Colonial Government; and writing poetries that praised Emperor Daisho(大正天皇) and the Royal prince(later Emperor Showa(昭和天皇))Yet it is still inconclusive as to Yang’s identity of defected Pro-Japanese Confucian. His alumni of School of Hwaseo(華西學派) and renowned Independence Movement worker Yi Kwan-Gu(李觀求) regarded him as a man who devoted his life for the Movement. There are no evidence for Yi’s appraisal aside from his article, 『Uiyongsilgi(義勇實記)』. Still Yi’s statement cannot be regarded as false, since 『Uiyongsilgi(義勇實記)』 is in itself recognised as reliable source of facts, and its content so specific, that can written only by person who had keen knowledge about the situation. In conclusion, Yang Bong-Je represents the complexity and multi-faceted nature of Resistance and Cooperation, that shows yet another characteristics of Pro-Japanese Confucians.
한말시기 ‘新大韓’을 건설할 주역으로 ‘新靑年’이 주목되었고, 이들 ‘신청년’이 국민국가 수립에 기여할 근대적 지식을 얻는 주된 경로는 일본 유학이었다. 실제로 이들은 일본 유학기간에 습득한 근대적 지식을 그들 자신의 실천 활동에서 적용하고자 했고 이와 병행해서 뒷 세대 청년과 소년층에 출판 및 저술활동을 통해 그 내용을 전달하고자 했다. 이들 동경 유학생 가운데 주목받은 3인이 있었고, 이들을 ‘東京三才’라고 불렀는데, 홍명희, 최남선, 이광수를 가리켰다. ‘아시아의 런던’이라고 불리던 일본 동경에서 유학했던 이들 3인은 학교 및 서점․도서관 등을 통한 근대의 경험을 바탕으로 귀국 후 다양한 분야에서 조선의 ‘문명화’를 이루는 영역에서 활동했다. 홍명희는 1888년, 최남선은 1890년, 이광수는 1892년에 태어났으며, 이들 3인은 각각 2살 터울이었다. 비슷한 연배의 이들은 한말 일제 초 일본에 유학을 했던 경험이 동일했으며, 문학의 영역에서 활동을 한 공통분모를 지녔다. 귀국의 시점에서 홍명희는 자연주의 문학 영역에서, 최남선은 역사와 조선문화 영역에서, 이광수는 문학과 사회 평론의 영역에서 장점을 지닌 존재였다. 이들 ‘동경삼재’의 본격적인 활동은 식민지 상황 속에서 이루어졌다. 귀국과정 및 국내에서의 이들의 활동 폭은 이러한 현실에 의해 제한되거나 굴절될 수밖에 없는 상황이었다. ‘동경삼재’는 일제에 의해 병합된 시기를 전후해서, 자신들의 역할을 스스로 부여하고 교육과 언론 영역에서 활동을 전개했다. 하지만 일본에서 습득한 근대적 사고와 물질적 영역의 성과를 조선에서 실현하기 어려웠다. 이러한 시대적 상황 속에서 이들 동경삼재는 ‘신경쇠약’에 걸리기도 하고 외국을 ‘방황’하기도 했다. 아울러 이들은 윗세대의 도움을 받지 못한 존재로서 자신들을 규정했다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 일본 유학시절 경험했던 민족주의적 각성을 토대로, 이들 ‘동경삼재’는 1919년 전민족적 항일운동인 3‧1운동의 과정에서 주역의 역할을 담당했다.
Kim Yun-Sik(1835~1922) is treated as a member of the Progressive group in the study of the modern Korean history. He was most acquainted with diplomatic affairs among other Progressive group members. In 1882, he had led the establishment of the Joseon-America Treaty. Later, he took office as Minister of the Department of Foreign Affairs from December 1884 to June 1887 and from June 1894 to February 1896. Lastly, until he passed away in 1922, he was incessantly interested in the Protection, Annexation, and Independence of his nation. His theory of diplomacy is represented by his “Theory of serving two ends(兩得論)”. The gist of the theory is that “If Joseon(朝鮮) remains as a subject state(屬邦) of the Qing(淸) but is sovereign(自主) with respect to other nations, it can serve two ends since it does not lose sovereign right and does not betray her feudal duty for Qing”. This almost literally agrees with Qing’s Li Hong-zhang’s “Theory of subject state with sovereignty(屬邦自主論)”. However, appearing to say the ‘sovereignty’ of Joseon, Li in fact pursued Joseon’s status as a dependent/semi-sovereign state(屬國・半主之國) in accordance with Elements of International Law(萬國公法). Kim believed that a traditional subject state(屬邦) could retain its sovereignty but a modern dependent state(屬國) couldn’t. However, with the status as a dependent/semi-sovereign state, which Li Hongzhang pursued, Joseon can retain her rights, though limitedly, such as rights of negotiation and treaties and of legation according to Elements of International Law. Thus, a ‘modern dependent state without sovereignty’ did not exist based on the international law. In the same logic, ‘a traditional subject state with guaranteed sovereignty’ was difficult to expect at that time considering the fact that Qing tried to take Joseon as her dependent/semi-sovereign state based on the international law. Accordingly, we can see that it was meaningless to distinguish between a modern dependent state and a traditional subject state.
Taoism was introduced to Korea from China during the Three Kingdoms period. Taoism enjoyed the greatest popularity during the Koryeo Dynasty, especially in the court and the ruling class. This paper studies the activites of Lee Jungyak, Koryeo's Taoist, and Taoism in the Koryeo Dynasty period. Lee Jungyak were very important Taoist and a bureaucrat. He and King Yejong established Bokwongung, Taoist Tample. They adopted Taoism as a part of the policy. Therefore, they expected to promote Taoism to overcome national crises and stabilize hardship of the Korgeo Dynasty. And Taoists said that the power of king was ordained by Heaven. It had the effect of strengthening the power of king. In the group of King Yejong's royal cronies, which was leaded by Han Anin, there were rising officials who had studied Confucianism and Taoism. But when Yi Jakyeom became to exercise political power as King Injong's maternal grandfather, Han Anin and Lee Jungyak were killed by him. Taoism was introduced to Korea from China during the Three Kingdoms period, and Three Kingdoms's Taoism succeeded Koryeo Dynasty. Koryeo's Taoism remains as a minor but significant element of Koryeo thought. And Taoist rituals were introduced into Koryeo from Song China, especially under King Yejong. Several Song emperors, most notably Huizong, were active in promoting Taoism. Song's Taoism arrived in Koryeo under the reign of King Yejong. Emperor Huizong sent the Taoist preacher to the Koryeo Dynasty. Therefore, Lee Jungyak and King Yejong built Bokwongung, tample of Taoists, at the Royal place in Gaegyeong from 1111 to 1112. and tried to promote Taoism. The object of worship in these rituals included most of the major and minor deities of the Taoist pantheon. Samcheong and Taeil seem to have been the most popular.
This paper aims to consider Yun Doo-soo's character and his literary status. First of all, I clarify his literary character as a writer and government official. Because he spent lots of his early time as a government official, and he published geography books to use for political affairs. And his practical approach to the poem also shows his character. In the second place, I studied his view of nature. For him, nature was an object of appreciating and enjoying. Or he resolved his gloom come from political frustration through enjoying nature. This feature is distinguished from Sarim writers who were on alert to 'ruining one's morality enjoying nature.'In conclusion, I analyzed his work Seongongjeonggi and defined that he applied Tang-Song literary style as a medium of allegory. And I also confirmed his rhetoric skill from other works.