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This paper tried to seek sales enhancement measures of Agricultural Cooperative by analysing pooling system of Kawakami Branch Office of JA Yatugatake in Nagano Prefecture. Japan. The restructuring of business system for a favorable sales of vegetables & fruits in response to various requests from members was examined. The support measures of Agricultural Cooperative for member farmers are also devised. It was found out that to improve pooling system and to organize members as a functional form are effective for sales enhancement of Agricultural Cooperative.
The foaming process of composites can be strongly influenced by the size, shape, and type of the applied reinforcing materials. In this paper, the structure of foamed polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) filled with natural additives and 4,4'- diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) were examined by a newly applied ultrasonic technique. The modulus of the composite can be calculated by the longitudinal wave propagation time using this ultrasonic technique. Since the longitudinal waves of ultrasound are strongly influenced by the orientation of the reinforcing materials, the orientation of the composites can be also investigated. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and bending tests were used to check the changes in modulus, which is comparable to the calculated ultrasonic modulus. Due to the differences in the measurement processes, the ultrasonic and the bending measurements gave opposite results. These opposite results clearly indicate the orientation of the natural filler.
Various supported precious metal (Pt, Rh, Ru, Ir) catalysts have been screened in the reduction of benzonitrile(BN), benzyl cyanide (BC) and 3-phenylpropionitrile (PPN) to benzylamine (BA), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA) and 3-phenylpropylamine (PPA), using our method for selective, heterogeneous,palladium-catalysed hydrogenation of nitriles to primary amines developed previously. A readily availableplatinum on carbon catalyst (10% Pt/C) afforded the best results obtaining complete conversion ofnitriles, as well as comparatively high isolated yields (58–70%) and selectivities to primary amines(57–68%) under mild and optimized conditions [6 bar, 30 C, two immiscible solvents (dichloromethane/water or toluene/water), acidic additives (NaH2PO4, (NH4)H2PO4 or H2SO4)]. Contrary to the typicalhigh secondary amine selectivity of platinum, surprisingly, this Pt/C catalyst proved to be much moreeffective and selective in the formation of PEA and PPA than a Pd/C one applied earlier. To clear the divergencesin the primary amine selectivity observed, quantum chemical calculations (DFT) were accomplishedrelated to the adsorption interactions between the imine intermediates and platinum.
substantial attention as carriers of complex intercellular information. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes in health and disease. They are also considered to hold promise for future diagnostics and therapy. EVs are characterized by a previously underappreciated heterogeneity. The heterogeneity and molecular complexity of EVs necessitates high-throughput analytical platforms for detailed analysis. Recently, mass spectrometry, nextgeneration sequencing and bioinformatics tools have enabled detailed proteomic, transcriptomic, glycomic, lipidomic, metabolomic, and genomic analyses of EVs. Here, we provide an overview of systems biology experiments performed in the field of EVs. Furthermore, we provide examples of how in silico systems biology approaches can be used to identify correlations between genes involved in EV biogenesis and human diseases. Using a knowledge fusion system, we investigated whether certain groups of proteins implicated in the biogenesis/release of EVs were associated with diseases and phenotypes. Furthermore, we investigated whether these proteins were enriched in publicly available transcriptomic datasets using gene set enrichment analysis methods. We found associations between key EV biogenesis proteins and numerous diseases, which further emphasizes the key role of EVs in human health and disease.
In this paper we provide evidence that trust and reciprocity, the two key elements of social capital, are affected by country differences. Based on the amounts sent and returned in the investment game by student subjects we find evidence on trusting and reciprocal behaviour and we show significant cross-country differences between the levels of trust and reciprocity. We also show that the answers for ‘trust in strangers’ type attitudinal questions have a significant effect either on trusting or reciprocal behaviour, while gender does not affect any of them. We report that reciprocity is affected by the same variables as trust: in particular stated trust has a significant influence on reciprocal behaviour, which can be explained by attitudes such as projective reasoning. Furthermore, we find that questionnaire based rankings of countries are poor predictors of trusting behaviour rankings, which is mainly due to the differences in strength of correlation between stated trust and trusting behaviour country-by-country. In this paper we provide evidence that trust and reciprocity, the two key elements of social capital, are affected by country differences. Based on the amounts sent and returned in the investment game by student subjects we find evidence on trusting and reciprocal behaviour and we show significant cross-country differences between the levels of trust and reciprocity. We also show that the answers for ‘trust in strangers’ type attitudinal questions have a significant effect either on trusting or reciprocal behaviour, while gender does not affect any of them. We report that reciprocity is affected by the same variables as trust: in particular stated trust has a significant influence on reciprocal behaviour, which can be explained by attitudes such as projective reasoning. Furthermore, we find that questionnaire based rankings of countries are poor predictors of trusting behaviour rankings, which is mainly due to the differences in strength of correlation between stated trust and trusting behaviour country-by-country.
Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a safe method to feed patients with feeding difficulty. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of conventional PEG and laparoscopic-assisted PEG (L-PEG) placement in high-risk pediatric patients. Methods: In our tertiary pediatric department, 90 PEG insertions were performed between 2014 and 2019. Children with severe thoracoabdominal deformity (TAD), previous abdominal surgery, ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt, and abdominal tumors were considered as high-risk patients. Age, sex, diagnosis, operative time, complications, and mortality were compared among patients who underwent conventional PEG placement (first group) and those who underwent L-PEG placement (second group). Results: We analyzed the outcomes of conventional PEG placement (first group, n=15; patients with severe TAD [n=7], abdominal tumor [n=6], and VP shunts [n=2]) and L-PEG placement (second group, n=10; patients with VP shunts [n=5], previous abdominal surgery [n=4], and severe TAD [n=1]). Regarding minor complications, 1 (6.6%) patient in the first group underwent unplanned PEG removal and 1 (10%) patient in the second group had peristomal granuloma. We observed three major complications: colon perforation (6.6%) in a patient with VP shunt, gastrocolic fistula (6.6%) in a patient with Fallot-tetralogy and severe TAD, and pneumoperitoneum (6.6%) caused by early tube dislodgement in an autistic patient with severe TAD. All the three complications occurred in the first group (20%). No major complications occurred in the second group. Conclusion: In high-risk patients, L-PEG may be safer than conventional PEG. Thus, L-PEG is recommended for high-risk patients.
Carbon-starving Aspergillus nidulans cultures produce high activities of versatile hydrolytic enzymes and, among these,ChiB endochitinase and EngA β-1,3-endoglucanase showed significant antifungal activity against various fungal species. Double deletion of engA and chiB diminished the antifungal activity of the fermentation broths and increased conidiogenesis and long-term viability of A. nidulans, but decreased the growth rate on culture media containing weak carbon sources. Production of ChiB and EngA can influence fungal communities either directly due to their antifungal properties or indirectly through their effects on vegetative growth. Our data suggest saprophytic fungi as promising future candidates to develop novel biocontrol technologies.
Gergely Temesi,Viktor Virág,Éva Hadadi,Ildikó Ungvári,Lili E Fodor,András Bikov,Adrienne Nagy,Gabriella Gálffy,Lilla Tamási,Ildikó Horváth,András Kiss,Gábor Hullám,András Gézsi,Péter Sárközy,Péter Ant 대한천식알레르기학회 2014 Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research Vol.6 No.6
Purpose:Based on a previous gene expression study in a mouse model of asthma, we selected 60 candidate genes and investigated their possible roles in human asthma. Methods: In these candidate genes, 90 SNPs were genotyped using MassARRAY technology from 311 asthmatic children and 360 healthy controls of the Hungarian (Caucasian) population. Moreover, gene expression levels were measured by RT PCR in the induced sputum of 13 asthmatics and 10 control individuals. t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were carried out in order to assess associations of SNP frequency and expression level with asthma. Permutation tests were performed to account for multiple hypothesis testing. Results: The frequency of 4 SNPs in 2 genes differed significantly between asthmatic and control subjects: SNPs rs2240572, rs2240571, rs3735222 in gene SCIN, and rs32588 in gene PPARGC1B. Carriers of the minor alleles had reduced risk of asthma with an odds ratio of 0.64 (0.51-0.80; P=7×10-5) in SCIN and 0.56 (0.42-0.76; P=1.2×10-4) in PPARGC1B. The expression levels of SCIN, PPARGC1B and ITLN1 genes were significantly lower in the sputum of asthmatics. Conclusions: Three potentially novel asthma-associated genes were identified based on mouse experiments and human studies.
Lili E Fodor,András Gézsi,Ildikó Ungvári,Ágnes F. Semsei,Zsófia Gál,Adrienne Nagy,Gabriella Gálffy,Lilla Tamási,András Kiss,Péter Antal,Csaba Szalai 대한천식알레르기학회 2017 Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research Vol.9 No.3
Purpose: Several lines of evidence indicate that the Hippo/Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) pathways might play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. To investigate the possible role of the Hippo/YAP1 pathway in the pathogenesis of asthma or its phenotypes. Methods: The levels of gene expressions of the members of the Hippo/YAP1 were compared. The presence of the proteins of the YAP1 and FRMD6 were analyzed with Western blot in induced sputum of 18 asthmatic subjects and 10 control subjects. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the YAP1 gene were genotyped in 522 asthmatic subjects and 711 healthy controls. The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and with Bayesian network-based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). Results: The mRNA of all the members of the Hippo/YAP1 pathway could be detected in the induced sputum of both controls and cases. A correlation was found between YAP1 mRNA levels and sputum bronchial epithelial cells (r=0.575, P=0.003). The signal for the FRMD6 protein could be detected in all sputum samples while the YAP1 protein could not be detected in the sputum samples, of the healthy controls and severe asthmatics, but it was detectable in mild asthmatics. The rs2846836 SNP of the YAP1 gene was significantly associated with exercise-induced asthma (odds ratio [OR]=2.1 [1.3-3.4]; P=0.004). The distribution of genotypes of rs11225138 and certain haplotypes of the YAP1 gene showed significant differences between different asthma severity statuses. With BN-BMLA, 2 SNPs, genetic variations in the FRMD6 gene proved to be the most relevant to exercise-induced asthma and allergic rhinitis. These 2 SNPs through allergic rhinitis and exercise-induced asthma were in epistatic interaction with each other. Conclusions: Our results provided additional evidence that the FRMD6/Hippo/YAP1 pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. If additional studies can confirm these findings, this pathway can be a potential novel therapeutic target in asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases.