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<P>In the past years, major efforts have been made to understand the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been translated into extensive experimental approaches aimed at slowing down or halting disease progression. Advances in transgenic (Tg) technologies allowed the engineering of different mouse models of AD recapitulating a range of AD-like features. These Tg models provided excellent opportunities to analyze the bases for the temporal evolution of the disease. Several lines of evidence point to synaptic dysfunction as a cause of AD and that synapse loss is a pathological correlate associated with cognitive decline. Therefore, the phenotypic characterization of these animals has included electrophysiological studies to analyze hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, a widely recognized cellular model for learning and memory. Transgenic mice, along with non-Tg models derived mainly from exogenous application of Aβ, have also been useful experimental tools to test the various therapeutic approaches. As a result, numerous pharmacological interventions have been reported to attenuate synaptic dysfunction and improve behavior in the different AD models. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation or successful translation into disease-modifying compounds in humans. Here, we will briefly review the synaptic alterations across the different animal models and we will recapitulate the pharmacological strategies aimed at rescuing hippocampal plasticity phenotypes. Finally, we will highlight intrinsic limitations in the use of experimental systems and related challenges in translating preclinical studies into human clinical trials.</P>
Innumerable techniques have been used to measure, index, or predict the viability of skin flaps after elevation. However, these are largely indirect and don't accurately reflect the events that occur at kthe cellular level. A method was sought that gives direct, reproducible, and accurate data about physiological and biochemical changes that occur during flap elevation. Because of its ability to monitor changes in the levels of high energy phosphorus metabolites(ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, PC or phosphocreatine, Pi or inorganic phosphate), 31-P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) holds promise of providing direct assessment of the metabolic status and biochemical changes that occur during skin flap elevation. MRS monitoring was performed on three portions of raised random pattern skin flaps of 5 rats. The spectrometer used for 31-P nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was a Bruker Biospec(4.7 Tesla) system, and a modified surface coil constructed of two layers of copper coil was used. The results have validated the ability of 31-P MRS to : 1. define the regional flxes in the levels of ATP, PCr, and Pi in skin flaps. 2. demonstrate that, of these, PCr levels represent the most sensitive indicator of flap well being. 3. measure intracellular pH through the chemical shift of the Pi resonance. 4. establish predictive correlations between profile of normal, compromised, and failing skin flaps and have thus prepared the way for noninvasive in vivo topical magnetic resonance investigations of flaps.
로버트 올리버(Robert T. Oliver)는 수사학과 커뮤니케이션 분야의 선각자이자, 문화 간 커뮤니케이션에서 아시아 중심적 접근법을 사용한 선구자였으며, 1940∼1950년대 초창기 대한민국의 발전에 영향을 미친 중요한 인물이다. 이 논문에서는 올리버 교수가 문화 간 커뮤니케이션 연구에 기여한 네 가지 영향을 중점적으로 살펴보았다. 즉, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구에서 유럽 중심적 편향에 대한 비판, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구에서 아시아 중심적 대안의 제시, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구에 있어서 문화 간 전망의 활성화, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구를 위한 장으로써의 국제외교의 구상이 그 네 가지 영향이다.
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Moral gravity and ludic energy lie close but uneasily together in the medieval animal fable. These elements are particularly active in Robert Henryson's Morall Fabilis; even as he presents his traditionally didactic tales, Henryson explores the tensions and potentials of this mix. This paper focuses upon Henryson's fifth fable, "The Trial of the Fox"-and explores how that trial (and its animal participants) rewrites the fable form.
The ekphrastic has become a frequent exercise for contemporary American poets. This study adds to the growing research on varieties of ekphrasis by discussing the various functions of whiteness in works by four poets. Natasha Trethewey, in her most recent volume, Thrall (2012), offers a series of poems inspired by 17th- and 18th-century Latin American casta paintings, which depict and catalogue variations of mixed-race couples and their children. After considering the eclipsing of whiteness in Trethewey’s “ethnic ekphrasis,” I will turn to the whiteness in Robert Hass’s ekphrastic on Vermeer’s Woman Pouring Milk titled “Art and Life,” from his National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize winning collection Time & Materials (2008), as an example of “elliptical ekphrasis.” The play on whiteness continues with Alice Fulton’s “fractal ekphrasis in “Close,” from her volume Felt (2001), in which she considers Joan Mitchell’s White Territory, an abstract expressionist painting. Finally, Harryette Mullens’ “Xenophobic Nightmare in a Foreign Language” from Sleeping with the Dictionary (2002), challenges the traditions of the ekphrastic and of poetry itself in her “post-ethnic/postekphrastic ekphrasis.”
Background: The nonsurgical treatment of chest wall deformity by a vacuum bell or external brace is gradual, with correction taking place over months. Monitoring the progress of nonsurgical treatment of chest wall deformity has relied on the ancient methods of measuring the depth of the excavatum and the protrusion of the carinatum. Patients, who are often adolescent, may become discouraged and abandon treatment. Methods: Optical scanning was utilized before and after the intervention to assess the effectiveness of treatment. The device measured the change in chest shape at each visit. In this pilot study, patients were included if they were willing to undergo scanning before and after treatment. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatment results were assessed. Results: Scanning was successful in 7 patients. Optical scanning allowed a visually clear, precise assessment of treatment, whether by operation, vacuum bell (for pectus excavatum), or external compression brace (for pectus carinatum). Millimeter-scale differences were identified and presented graphically to patients and families. Conclusion: Optical scanning with the digital subtraction of images obtained months apart allows a comparison of chest shape before and after treatment. For nonsurgical, gradual methods, this allows the patient to more easily appreciate progress. We speculate that this will increase adherence to these methods in adolescent patients.
This article describes two projects based on Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of successful intelligence and designed to provide theory‐based testing for abilities and for identification of the gifted. The first, Rainbow Project, provided a supplementary test of analytical, practical, and creative skills to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. The Rainbow measures enhanced predictive validity for college GPA relative to high school GPA and the SAT and decreased ethnic‐group disparities in test scores. The second, Aurora Project, identifies gifted students in the upper elementary grades (for children roughly ages 9‐12). This project is now in progress. The two projects demonstrate the potential value of including a broader range of abilities in assessments to identify gifted children.
Economic, energy, and environmental security is a tripartite challenge to developing and develped countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from the burning of fossil fuels are growing rapidly in Asia. Flexible economic instruments, such as joint implementation (JI) and emissions trading, offer a means concomitantly to facilitate economic, energy, and environmental security. The U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation (IJI) was established as a pilot program to facilitate voluntary project investments by U.S. entities to reduce GHG emissions worldwide. U.S. IJI, working under guidelines established by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), has developed a set of operational criteria for evaluating project proposals. To date, U.S. IJI has received more than 150 project proposals, of which thirty-one have been accepted into the pilot program. These projects represent a diverse set of innovative technologies and practices in thirteen countries. Preliminary estimates suggest that cumulative net emission reductions as a result of these project are expected to be more than 30 million Mt C (megatons of carbon). Descriptions and case studies of two U.S. IJI projects in Southeast Asia are considered: carbon sequestration in Indonesia through reduced impact logging, and a rural electrification project in Sri Lanka. Experiences from U.S. IJI provide a basis for considering ways to implement emissions reductions under the UN FCCC Kyoto Protocol.
Robert, A.W. 노인의 골밀도와 하체근력에 대한 인종과 성별차에 따른 비교. 운동과학, 제10권 제2호, 135-147, 2001. 본 연구의 목적은 장기적인 체중 부과 운동이 체중을 통제했을 때 골밀도의 차이를 절감시킬 수 있는지를 결정하기 위해서 미국 캘리포니아주에 거주하는 활동적인 고령 한국인과 일본인, 그리고 흑인과 백인을 대상으로 근력과 골밀도를 평가하기 위함이다. 본 연구 대상자는 종단적 연구에 참여하고 있는 숙련된 고령 운동선수들 중 남자 37명과 34명의 여성과 한국인 남성 12명, 22명의 여성이 참여하였다. 골밀도 (BMD)와 골량 (BMC)은 Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, Hologic QDR 1500)을 이용하여 힙, 척추, 몸 전체에서 측정되었고 근력은 KinCom 동력계에 의해서 등척성 (Isometric)과 등속성 (Isokinetic) 무릎 굴근력 및 신근력을 측정하였다. 데이터는 집단 사이, 성별 사이에 아노바와 그에 따른 사후검증을 (LSD)를 실시하였고 집단 사이에 체중을 통제한 앙코바를 실시하였다. 또한 변수간 체중을 통제하여 피어슨 부분 상관관계와 단순 회귀분석을 실시하여 분석하였다. 그 결과 한국인과 일본 남성들은 신체질량과 골밀도 및 무릎 굴근력과 신근력에 있어서 백인과 흑인보다 의의있게 낮았다. 반면 여성에 있어서는 흑인 여성이 근력에 있어서는 다른 세 그룹 보다 상대적으로 약간의 차이는 신체 질량과 골밀도에 있어서 의의 있는 차이가 있었다. 체중을 통제한 앙코바를 실시했을 때는 남성에 있어서 힙과 척추, 여성에 있어서는 총 신체와 척추에 있어서 인종간 차이가 사라졌다. 결론적으로, 활동적인 고령 남녀 운동가들에 있어서 인종간 골밀도 차이는 장기적이고 체중부과 운동에 의해서 최소화 할 수 있으나 신체 질량과는 관련되어 있지 않다. 활동적인 고령자들에 있어서 근력과 골밀도의 차이는 인종이나 성별보다는 신체 크기와 더욱 관련이 있다. Robert, A.W. BMD and Leg Muscle Strength of Aged Subjects in Racial and Gender Differences. Exercise Science, 10(2): 135-147, 2001. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BMD, muscle mass and muscle strength in a group of active older Korean, Japanese, Afro-american, arid Caucasian individuals living in California to determine if chrornic weight bearing exercise could diminish weight-controlled differences in BMD. Thirtyseven male and thirty-four female participants in a longitudinal study of master athletes and twelve male and twenty-two female active Koreans were used as subjects. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured for the hip, spine and whole body using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, Hologic QDR 1500). Isometric and isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength were determined on a Kin Com dynamometer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and ANCOVA controlling for body mass. For males, Korean, Japanese subjects had significantly lower body mass, BMD and knee extension/flexion strength than Caucasian and Afro-American subjects, while for females, Afro-American subjects had significantly greater body mass and BMD than the Caucasian or Korean, Japanese subjects with relatively few differences between groups in muscle strength. When body weight was accounted for by ANCOVA, racial differences disappeared for the hip and spine in the males and for the whole body and spine in the females. It was concluded that racial difference in BMD in active older men and worn unrelated to body mass may be minimized by chronic, weight bearing activity. In active older persons, differences in BMD and strength are related more to size than to race or gender.