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This study examines the difficulty of reading text in elementary school English textbooks. Four elementary school English textbook series published by three publishers were evaluated by Word Critical Factor (WCF). WCF considers cognitive demands for word recognition; it assesses the match of linguistic content in the text with the phonetically regular and high-frequency words that are associated with particular stages of reading development. For the analysis, all of the words that appeared in the reading and writing sections from four elementary school English textbooks were analyzed by two criteria, that is, the ratio of high frequency words and phonetically regular words among 100 running words, and the number of unique words in each textbook. The results showed that all four textbooks’ difficulty levels were very high considering the learner’s reading ability. This was due to the textbooks having a low repetition of words and also the complicated vowel patterns that were above the reading abilities of students. All of these factors combined are what have caused the difficulties presented in English textbooks. In conclusion, although the reading text introduces a variety of genres and activities for the development of reading skills, most reading text could not assist the reader’s cognitive processing.
Landscape and natural monuments protection policy in North Korea is rarely understood because of lack of information in scientific and legislative fields. Legislative system is very important to protect landscape and natural monuments, which are described at “Landscape and natural monuments protection law (LNMPL)” in North Korea. Cabinet of North Korea has authorities to lead the Central Agency for Landscape and Natural Monuments Protection (CALNMP). Designation and managements of landscape and natural monuments are regarded as CALNMP’s and local governments’ responsibilities. There are many differences between South and North Koreas’ landscape and natural monuments protection system. Especially legislation system has profound differences in its legal structure. North Korea’s Labor Party is superior to the Cabinet and Labor Party’s administrative order has at least the same authority to regulate and manage the national policy and means. With LNMPL, CALNMP organizes the national plan for landscape and natural monuments protection and regulate the activities of the Agencies for landscape and natural monuments protection in the aspects of action plan for each administrative agency, budget and other resources. For the reunification in the future and economic cooperation, legislative and administrative system of landscape and natural monuments protection in North Korea should be understood.
Submerged floating tunnel is an innovative tunnel infrastructure passing through the deep seaindependent of wave and wind so that high speed vehicle or train can run. It doesn't depend onwater depth and is cost effective due to modular construction on land. The construction period canbe reduced drastically. In this paper, a concept design of submerged floating tunnel is introducedand a method to analyze structural behavior of the body in case of collision with ships orsubmarines is proposed for securing safety. In this study, the local damage and global behavior ofsubmerged tunnel in collision with submerged moving body are simulated via commercialhydrocode ANSYS LS-DYNA. 본 연구에서는 해중터널에 작용하는 충돌하중 산정 및 특성 분석에 관한 연구를 수행하였다. 기존의충돌하중에 대한 구조물들은 일부 구조물을 제외하고 상세한 설계가 이뤄지지 않았기에 초과압력하중으로 고려한 과도설계가 이뤄어 졌다. 실질적으로 충돌하중을 받는 구조물의 거동 및 성능을 실험을통해 얻어야 하나 실험장소 및 계측 등의 실험적 제약과 정확성의 부족으로 인하여, 충돌하중에 대한구조물의 거동분석과 설계는 해석적 연구를 통해 주로 이루어지고 있다. 해중터널의 충돌해석을 위해상용 구조해석프로그램인 LS-DYNA를 사용하여 해중터널에 대한 충돌해석을 수행하였다.
This paper investigated the preference change of payment terms in international trade along with counteroffer or first offer conditions of the other parties. Studies on trade payment terms have mainly focused on payment term determination factors such as firm size, product price level, country credit rate, etc. We tried to find other factors affecting payment terms choice, during the negotiation process. We applied behavioral economics theories such as ‘Status Quo Bias’ and ‘Anchoring effect’ to build our research model. To prove the existence of the above effects, we proceeded with field experiments to the exporting companies in Alibaba.com. Both ‘Status Quo Bias’ and ‘Anchoring effect’ were found in the field experiment. Most of the exporting companies preferred traditional payment methods to new payment methods. And an initial request for a low advance payment ratio led to a lower advance payment ratio. Also, the experience of using new payment methods could diminish status quo bias. This paper applied behavioral economics theories and field experiment methodology to the payment term studies in international trades. These attempts could contribute to expanding the diversity of methodology and scope of international trade studies.
To assess an economic value of Cheonggyecheon river restoration project, an in-depth exit survey data was collected to apply travel cost method in this study. Poisson model, Negative Binomial, Zero-truncated Poisson, and Zero-truncated Negative Binomial model were executed due to the nature of count data. Empirical results showed that regressors were statistically significant and corresponded to general consumer theory. Since our survey data showed over-dispersion, Zero-truncated Negative Binomial was selected as an optimal one to analyze travel demand of Cheonggyecheon by model goodness of fit test among those aforementioned empirical models. Estimating an economic value of Cheonggyecheon river restoration project, which is known as an ecological river restoration project, we used annual visit of individual traveler and an optimal model. Suffice to say that the annual economic value of Cheonggyecheon river restoration project was estimated as 193.4 billion won in 2013. 본 연구는 서울시에서 추진한 청계천 복원사업에 대한 경제적 가치를 평가하기 위해 심층출구면접조사 방식으로 수집된 자료를 바탕으로 여행비용법(Travel Cost Method, TCM)을 적용하였다. 가산자료의 특성을 감안하여 분석모형은 포아송모형(Poisson Model, PM), 음이항모형(Negative Binomial, NB), 절단된 포아송모형(Zero-truncated Poisson, ZTP), 그리고 절단된 음이항모형(Zero-truncated Negative Binomial, ZTNB)을 사용하였다. 분석결과 추정계수들은 통계적으로 유의하게 나타났고 일반적인 소비자경제이론에 부합하는 결과가 도출되었다. 조사된 자료에서 과산포현상(Over-dispersion)이 발견되었으며 모형적합도검정을 통해서 절단된 음이항모형(Zero-truncated Negative Binomial, ZTNB)이 청계천 방문객의 수요를 추정하는 데 최적모형으로 선정되었다. 생태하천복원사업인 청계천복원사업의 경제적 가치를 추정하기 위해 방문객의 연평균 방문횟수와 최적모형에서 추정된 계수를 통해서 분석한 결과 청계천의 경제적 가치는 2013년 기준으로 연간 약 1,902 원으로 추정되었다.