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Tile waste is found in several forms including manufacturing slurry, manufacturing dust, and solid pieces from cracked, smashed, and rejected tiles at the construction sites. Worn out tyres that are no longer safe to be used by vehicles are either discarded or burned, adversely impacting natural ecosystems. These wastes are non-degradable and have a direct environmental impact. Poor waste management can lead to hazardous pollution, reduced soil fertility, and increased space consumption at disposal sites. The massive and increasing volume of the tile and tyre wastes calls for recycling of the materials for economical reuse, cleaner production, and greener development. One area for beneficial reuse of these waste materials is the improvement of engineering properties in soft soil. Structures on soft soils may experience several forms of damage due to insufficient bearing capacity and excessive settlement. Hence, soil stabilization is often necessary to ensure that the soft soil can meet the engineering requirements for stability. A comprehensive review of the published literature on the use of recycled tyres and tiles to stabilize and enhance soft soils was carried out. The properties of soft soil-waste mixtures such as liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, compaction behaviour, unconfined compressive strength, and California Bearing Ratio have been presented. When used as partial replacement of cement, sand, and aggregate in concrete, the effect of tyre and tile waste on workability, durability, and compressive strength of the concrete has also been presented. Recycled tiles and tyres have been used with or without any other admixtures to sustainably improve the strength and bearing capacity of soil. The suitability of recycled tiles and tyres in soil stabilization has been discussed with regard to enhancement of strength and reduction of settlement. In addition, the beneficial effects of the recycled tiles and tyres, when they partially replace cement, sand or stone in concrete, have been discussed.
Tartrazine (TAZ) is one of the most commonly used artificial dyes for foods and drugs. We determined the effect of TAZ on fetal development by examining morphological, visceral, and skeletal malformations in rat fetuses following daily oral administration of TAZ to pregnant Wistar rats at the 6th-15th day of gestation. TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced 6.0 and 7.1% fetal resorptions, as well as 10.0 and 10.5% fetal mortality, respectively. Fetal body weight and length were significantly lower in the groups treated with TAZ at 0.45 (3.97 ± 0.21 g and 27.3 ± 0.54 mm, respectively) and 4.5 mg/kg (3.48 ± 0.15 g and 23.22 ± 1.02 mm, respectively) than in the control group (4.0 ± 0.15 g and 30.01 ± 0.42 mm, respectively). TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg induced hepatic damage (20 and 33.3%, respectively), dark brown pigmentation due to hemosiderin in the splenic parenchyma (16.7 and 21.7%, respectively), as well as destructed and necrotic renal tubules (16.7 and 26.7%, respectively) in the fetuses. Moreover, TAZ at 0.45 and 4.5 mg/kg caused one or more missing coccygeal vertebrae (20 and 40%, respectively), missing sternebrae (6 and 10%, respectively), missing hind limbs (24 and 4%, espectively), and irregular ribs (16 and 20, respectively) in the fetuses. We concluded that TAZ has embryotoxic and teratogenic potentials in rats.
Mohammed Faruk,Sani Ibrahim,Ahmed Adamu,Abdulmumini Hassan Rafindadi,Yahaya Ukwenya,Yawale Iliyasu,Abdullahi Adamu,Surajo Mohammed Aminu,Mohammed Sani Shehu,Danladi Amodu Ameh,Abdullahi Mohammed,Saad 대한장연구학회 2018 Intestinal Research Vol.16 No.1
Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14), mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. Results: We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls (P <0.05). The CRC patients had significantly more fecal pH level than the matched apparently healthy controls (P =0.017). Conclusions: The identified differences in the fecal fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans “today.” (Intest Res 2018;16:99-108)
Many industrial processes require reliable temperature measurements in harsh environments with high temperature, dust, humidity, and pressure. However, commercially-available conventional temperature measurement devices are not suitable for use in such conditions. This study thus proposes a reliable, durable two-color radiation thermometer (RT) for harsh environments that was developed by selecting the appropriate components, designing a suitable mechanical structure, and compensating environmental factors such as absorption by particles and gases. The two-color RT has a simple, compactlydesigned probe with a well-structured data acquisition system combined with efficient LabVIEW-based code. As a result, the RT can measure the temperature in real time, ranging from 300 to 900℃ in extremely harsh environments, such as that above the burden zone of a blast furnace. The error in the temperature measurements taken with the proposed twocolor RT compared to that obtained using K-type thermocouple readouts was within 6.1 to 1.4℃ at a temperature range from 200 to 700℃. The effects of absorption by gases including CO<sub>2</sub>, CO and H2<sub>O</sub> and the scattering by fine particles were calculated to find the transmittance of the two wavelength bands of operation through the path between the measured burden surface and the two-color probe. This method is applied to determine the transmittance of the short and long wavelength bands to be 0.31 and 0.51, respectively. Accordingly, the signals that were measured were corrected, and the true burden surface temperature was calculated. The proposed two-color RT and the correction method can be applied to measure temperatures in harsh environments where light-absorbing gases and scattering particles exist and optical components can be contaminated.
The demands for reliable particle cloud temperature measurement exist in many process industries and scientific researches. Particle cloud temperature measurements depend on radiation thermometry at two or more color bands. In this study, we developed a sensitive, fast response and compact online infrared two-color probe to measure the temperature of a particle cloud in a phase of two field flow (solid-gas). The probe employs a detector contained two InGaAs photodiodes with different spectral responses in the same optical path, which allowed a compact probe design. The probe was designed to suit temperature measurements in harsh environments with the advantage of durability. The developed two-color probe is capable of detecting particle cloud temperature as low as 300°C, under dynamic conditions.
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West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic arbovirus, has been detected in mosquitos, birds, wildlife, horses, and humans in Malaysia, but limited information is available on WNV infection in Malaysian pigs. We tested 80 archived swine serum samples for the presence of WNV antibody and West Nile (WN) viral RNA using ID Screen West Nile Competition Multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and WNV-specific primers in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. A WNV seroprevalence of 62.5% (50/80) at 95% confidence interval (51.6%–72.3%) was recorded, with a significantly higher seroprevalence among young pigs (weaner and grower) and pigs from south Malaysia. One sample was positive for Japanese encephalitis virus antibodies; WN viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum samples.
Hydrocarbon is a powerful contributor to development. The present study makes an attempt to use remote sensing data coupled with geophysical and geological data that has been integrated into Arc GIS to delineate favorable zones for hydrocarbon potential in the Masila oil field. Lineaments have been extracted using satellite data and geological data by their surface spectral signatures, whereas the subsurface lineaments have been inferred using geophysical data. Digital image processing of satellite image using ERDAS IMAGINE-14 have been carried out, sequentially using various techniques (Sobal, Laplacian filters and band composite), lineament digitized as layers, layers were converted to raster (grid) format, classified, analyzed, integrated and visualized using Arc GIS. The resulting lineaments obtained from each data, suggests that most of the lineaments are trended in NW–SE which coincides and are in conformity with the existing trend of the study area. The output potential map was classified into five zones of hydrocarbon potentiality, namely very high, high, moderate, low and very low potential zones. The hydrocarbon evaluation results of the present study reveal that 6.9% of the total area falls under very high potential, 14.2% highly potential, 21.3% moderately potential, 25.7% low potential and 31.9% falls under very low potential zones. The zones were verified with oil fields and existing wells in the area which shows a positive correlation. Such studies are significant for hydrocarbon potential resource planning and management. Further, the methodology used for this study can be, replicated in another similar geological setup elsewhere for mapping hydrocarbon potential zones.
The demand for a reliable particle cloud temperature measurements is increased in many industries and scientific researches. The particle cloud temperature measurements depends on radiation thermometry at two or more color bands. In this study, we developed a sensitive, fast response and compact online infrared twocolor probe to measure the temperatures of a particle cloud in a phase of two field flow (solid-gas). The probe employs a detector contained two InGaAs photodiodes with different spectral responses, and a largedynamic-gain-range, low-noise current preamplifier harmonized the signal intensities. A powerful and efficient system was constructed for data acquisition, and a LabVIEW based software was developed for consistent operation of all elements and displaying the measured temperature. The developed two-color probe is capable of detecting particle cloud temperatures as low as 300 °C, under dynamic conditions.
Mohammed, Mohammed Nma,Yasmin, Abd Rahaman,Noraniza, Mohd Adzahan,Ramanoon, Siti Zubaidah,Arshad, Siti Suri,Bande, Faruku,Mohammed, Hussni O. The Korean Society of Veterinary Science 2021 JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCE Vol.22 No.3
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic arbovirus, has been detected in mosquitos, birds, wildlife, horses, and humans in Malaysia, but limited information is available on WNV infection in Malaysian pigs. We tested 80 archived swine serum samples for the presence of WNV antibody and West Nile (WN) viral RNA using ID Screen West Nile Competition Multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and WNV-specific primers in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, respectively. A WNV seroprevalence of 62.5% (50/80) at 95% confidence interval (51.6%-72.3%) was recorded, with a significantly higher seroprevalence among young pigs (weaner and grower) and pigs from south Malaysia. One sample was positive for Japanese encephalitis virus antibodies; WN viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum samples.
This paper discusses performance of the reinforced concrete structures deteriorated by corrosion on basis of numerical simulation analysis. The purpose is to preliminarily investigate the idea of performance comparison of circular and square reinforced concrete columns under corroded conditions. Previous research carried out by the authors shows that equivalent area reinforced concrete (RC) columns exhibit similar load-displacement behavior under flexural and shear controlled conditions. The two types of columns deviate from this similarity after the corrosion of steel reinforcement present in the concrete. The change in the load-displacement behavior is highly dependent upon factors including the corrosion ratio, axial load, presence of web reinforcement etc., The experimentally verified 3D finite element modelling (FEM) program (COM3D) was used to investigate the seismic performance of the circular shaped and its equivalent area square shaped RC columns. The results show that the effect of mild corrosion (around 2% corrosion) on the load-displacement behavior of square RC columns is more significant as compared to circular RC columns at without axial load and at lesser main reinforcement ratio while a similar behavior or reverse trend is observed at higher main reinforcement ratios and for cases with 10% axial load. The effect of corrosion on the web reinforcement present in square columns is more pronounced as compared to circular columns at low main reinforcement ratios.