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Two cyanobacterial morphotypes isolated from Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, maritime Antarctica were characterised using a polyphasic approach combining morphological, cytological and molecular analyses. These analyses showed that the strains grouped with members of the genus Wilmottia. This genus currently includes three species, W. murrayi, W. stricta, and W. koreana. Both morphotypes analysed in this study were placed within the clade of W. murrayi. This clade showed a well-supported separation from Antarctic and New Zealand strains, as well as strains from other regions. W. murrayi was first described from Antarctica and is now known from several Antarctic regions. Confirmation of the occurrence of W. murrayi at Signy Island significantly extends its known distribution in Antarctica. In addition, a new combination, W. arthurensis, is suggested for Phormidium arthurensis.
The effects of orchildectomy with/without testosterone replacement in wale rats, and ovarectomy with estrogen replacement in female rats on lipid peroxidation were studied in male and female rats fed with diets fortified with 20% w/w, soybean oil or palm oil for 4 months. Serum, liver and heart homogenates were assayed for malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels. Orchidectomy was found to reduce levels of lipid peroxidation products in the serum, liver and heart. Testosterone replacement did not increase the lipid peroxidation products to levels in the non-orchildectomised rats, while estrogen did not influence lipid peroxidation significantly. Palm oil decreased, but soybean oil increased lipid peroxidation in the liver and heart of both the castrated and sex hormone-replaced male and female rats.
Wang, Shuu-Jiun,Chung, Chin-Sang,Chankrachang, Siwaporn,Ravishankar, K.,Merican, Julia Shahnaz,Salazar, Gerard,Siow, Charles,Cheung, Raymond Tak-Fai,Phanthumchinda, Kammant,Sakai, Fumihiko Blackwell Publishing Inc 2008 Headache Vol.48 No.9
<P>Objectives.—</P><P>This study aimed to survey the headache diagnoses and consequences among outpatients attending neurological services in 8 Asian countries.</P><P>Methods.—</P><P>This survey recruited patients who consulted neurologists for the first time with the chief complaint of headache. Patients suffering from headaches for 15 or more days per month were excluded. Patients answered a self-administered questionnaire, and their physicians independently completed a separate questionnaire. In this study, the migraine diagnosis given by the neurologists was used for analysis. The headache symptoms collected in the physician questionnaire were based on the diagnostic criteria of migraine proposed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-2).</P><P>Results.—</P><P>A total of 2782 patients (72% females; mean age 38.1 ± 15.1 years) finished the study. Of them, 66.6% of patients were diagnosed by the neurologists to have migraine, ranging from 50.9% to 85.8% across different countries. Taken as a group, 41.4% of those patients diagnosed with migraine had not been previously diagnosed to have migraine prior to this consultation. On average, patients with migraine had 4.9 severe headaches per month with 65% of patients missing school, work, or household chores. Most (87.5%) patients with migraine took medications for acute treatment. Thirty-six percent of the patients had at least one emergency room consultation within one year. Only 29.2% were on prophylactic medications. Neurologists recommended pharmacological prophylaxis in 68.2% of patients not on preventive treatment. In comparison, migraine prevalence was the highest with ICHD-2 “any migraine” (ie, migraine with or without migraine and probable migraine) (73.3%) followed by neurologist-diagnosed migraine (66.6%) and ICHD-2 “strict migraine” (ie, migraine with or without aura only) (51.3%). About 88.6% patients with neurologist-diagnosed migraine fulfilled ICHD-2 any migraine but only 67.1% fulfilled the criteria of ICHD-2 strict migraine.</P><P>Conclusions.—</P><P>Migraine is the most common headache diagnosis in neurological services in Asia. The prevalence of migraine was higher in countries with higher referral rates of patients to neurological services. Migraine remains under-diagnosed and under-treated in this region even though a high disability was found in patients with migraine. Probable migraine was adopted into the migraine diagnostic spectrum by neurologists in this study.</P>