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        Morphological and genetic characterization and the nationwide distribution of the phototrophic dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa in the Korean waters

        Lee, Sung Yeon,Jeong, Hae Jin,You, Ji Hyun,Kim, So Jin The Korean Society of Phycology 2018 ALGAE Vol.33 No.1

        The phototrophic dinoflagellate genus Scrippsiella is known to have a worldwide distribution. Here, we report for the first time, the occurrence of Scrippsiella lachrymosa in Korean waters. Unlike the other stains of S. lachrymosa whose cultures had been established from cysts in the sediments, the clonal culture of the Korean strain of S. lachrymosa was established from motile cells. When the sulcal plates of S. lachrymosa, which have not been fully described to date, were carefully examined using scanning electron microscopy, the Korean strain of S. lachrymosa clearly exhibited the anterior sulcal plate (s.a.), right sulcal plate (s.d.), left sulcal plate (s.s.), median sulcal plate (s.m.), and posterior sulcal plate (s.p.). When properly aligned, the large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequence of the Korean strain of S. lachrymosa was ca. 1% different from those of two Norwegian strains of S. lachrymosa, the only strains for which LSU sequences have been reported. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence of the Korean strain of S. lachrymosa was also ca. 1% different from those of the Scottish and Chinese strains and 3% different from those of the Canadian, German, Greek, and Portuguese strains. Thus, the Korean S. lachrymosa strain has unique LSU and ITS sequences. The abundances of S. lachrymosa in the waters of 28 stations, located in the East, West, and South Sea of Korea, were quantified in four seasons from January 2016 to October 2017, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method and newly designed specific primer-probe sets. Its abundances were >$0.1cells\;mL^{-1}$ at eight stations in January and March 2016 and March 2017, and its highest abundance in Korean waters was $26cells\;mL^{-1}$. Thus, S. lachrymosa has a nationwide distribution in Korean waters as motile cells.


        A study on the fine structure of marine diatoms in Korean coastal waters: Genus Thalassiosira 5

        Park, Joon-Sang,Lee, Jin-Hwan The Korean Society of Phycology 2010 ALGAE Vol.25 No.3

        Thalassiosira species were collected from October 2007 to January 2009 in an attempt to better understand species diversity of the genus Thalassiosira in Korean coastal waters. A total of 5 Thalassiosira species (T. concaviuscula, T. oceanica, T. partheneia, T. simonsenii and T. nanolineata) were identified here. Most species in this study were of small size, and 5 species were recorded for the first time in Korean coastal waters. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we described distinctive characteristics of fine structure that proved to be important diagnostic characteristics for the identification of each species. The most important diagnostic characteristics for Thalassiosira species identification were the marginal strutted processes, the position of labiate processes, and the areolation. The differential characteristics of the species studied were: T. concaviuscula has a double layered external tubes on the marginal strutted processes; T. oceanica shows marginal ridges that are interlinked between the marginal strutted processes; the valve face of T. partheneia is fairly convex and its labiate process is positioned midway between two strutted processes; T. simonsenii is characterized by two labiate processes and somewhat coarse areolae; and, T. nanolineata has several central strutted processes and linear areolation.


        Seaweed cultivation and utilization of Korea

        Hwang, Eun Kyoung,Park, Chan Sun The Korean Society of Phycology 2020 ALGAE Vol.35 No.2

        Mariculture is regarded as the only option to supply the increasing demands for seaweeds as human food, feeds, fodder, and phycolloids in a sustainable manner. Technologies for culturing a range of seaweed species have been developed successively in Korea since the 1970s. In 2017, Korean marine farms produced 1,761,526 t of seaweed. The key focus of the industry is on the production of Pyropia (523,648 t), Undaria (622,613 t), and Saccharina (542,285 t). Pyropia is economically the most important species in Korea, accounting for up to 68% of total production value. As the top exporter of Pyropia in the world, Korea exported up to US $525 million of Pyropia products to 110 countries in 2018. Other economically important genera include Sargassum, Ulva, Capsosiphon, Codium, and Gracilariopsis, all of which are used for food, and Gelidium, Pachymeniopsis, and Ecklonia which are used as raw material for phycocolloid extraction. Significant work has gone into developing more productive strains of key seaweed species, and in 2012 the Korean government began to certify seaweed varieties. To date, 19 seaweed cultivars have been registered including 13 Pyropia, 5 Undaria, and 1 Saccharina. The industry is now seeking not only to increase productivity but also to add value through processing. Convenience foods and snacks have been developed that target health-conscious consumers and utilize the nutritional properties of seaweeds. The industry is also seeking to promote the sustainability of seaweed farming. One seaweed company in Korea obtained the world's first ASC-MSC (Aquaculture Stewardship Council-Marine Stewardship Council) certification in 2019 and more are expected to follow their lead. With continued research support, the Korean seaweed industry plans to continue to expand to meet new market demands at a sustainable pace.


        First Record of an Ectoparasitic Dinoflagellate, Oodinium inlandicum (Dinophyta) Infecting a Chaetognath, Sagitta crassa from the Korean Coasts

        Horiguchi, Takeo,Harada, Ai,Ohtsuka, Susumu,Soh, Ho-Young,Yoon, Yang-Ho The Korean Society of Phycology 2004 ALGAE Vol.19 No.3

        An ectoparasitic din flagellate infesting plank tonic chaetognath, Sagitta crassa Tokioka was found, for the first time, from Korean coasts. In order to identify the species, we investigated detailed morphology of the din flagellate using Nomarski interference optics as well as epifluorescent microscopes. The parasitic din flagellate consists of an oval to rod-shaped cell with a peduncle, by which the organism attaches to the host. The cell is covered with polygonal thecal plates. The nucleus displays two different shapes according to cell cycle stages: in young trophont the nucleus is elongated and shows typical din flagellate nucleus (dinokaryon), while in matured trophont, the nucleus is dome-shaped and non-dinokaryotic. The peduncle is variable in length and is ornamented with the longitudinal striations. All these characteristics point to identity that the ectoparasitic din flagellate infecting Sagitta crassa in Korean coasts is Oodinium inlandicum Horiguchi et Ohtsuka, originally described from the Seto Inland Sea of Japan. Relationship between prevalence and host sizes differed from those in Japan.


        First report of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa minima in the Pacific Ocean: morphological and genetic characterizations and the nationwide distribution in Korea

        Lee, Sung Yeon,Jeong, Hae Jin,Kwon, Ji Eun,You, Ji Hyun,Kim, So Jin,Ok, Jin Hee,Kang, Hee Chang,Park, Jae Yeon The Korean Society of Phycology 2019 ALGAE Vol.34 No.1

        The genus Heterocapsa is one of the major dinoflagellate groups, with some of its species having worldwide distributions. However, prior to the present study, the phototrophic species Heterocapsa minima has been reported only from the northeast Atlantic Ocean. Recently, H. minima was found in the Korean waters, and a clonal culture was established. This culture was used to examine the morphology of the Korean strain H. minima HMMJ1604 through light and scanning electron microscopy, as well as for its genetic characterization. Furthermore, to determine the nationwide distribution of H. minima in Korea, its abundance was quantified in the waters of 28 stations in all four seasons in 2016-2018 using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The overall morphology of H. minima HMMJ1604 was very similar to that of the Irish strain H. minima JK2. However, the Korean strain had five pores around the pore plate, whereas the Irish strain had six pores. When properly aligned, the sequences of the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA of the Korean strain were identical to those of the Irish strain. This species was detected in the waters of 26 out of 28 stations, but its abundance was greater than $1.0cells\;mL^{-1}$ at 8 stations. The highest abundance of H. minima was $44.4cells\;mL^{-1}$. Although this species was found in all seasons, its abundance was greater than $1.0cells\;mL^{-1}$ when the water temperature and salinity were $10.9-25.0^{\circ}C$ and 17.5-34.1, respectively. To the best knowledge, the present study reported for the first time that H. minima lives in the Pacific Ocean and is widely distributed in the Korean waters.

      • KCI등재후보


        김신영,유용훈,임치영,진형주,유종수,신현웅,Kim, Sin-Yeong,M.Sidharthan,Yu, Yong-Hun,Im, Chi-Yeong,Jin, Hyeong-Ju,Yu, Jong-Su,Sin, Hyeon-Ung The Korean Society of Phycology 2003 ALGAE Vol.18 No.4

        This paper reports that the heavy metal accumulation in marine seaweeds. Algal samples collected from Korean coast were analyzed to determine the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Pb. In general, heavy metals were found to be concentrated in many kinds of Korean seaweeds. The concentration levels of accumulated heavy metals in the marine seaweeds was in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the seawater were the highest in Iyajin harbor. Sargassum horneri, a brown alga accumulated high concentrations of Cu (80.66 ${\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$ dw) and Cr (31.54 ${\mu}g{\cdot}g^{-1}$ dw). The high concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the brown algae.


        A Study on the Fine Structure of the Marine Diatoms of Korean Coastal Waters - Genus Thalassiosira 3

        Lee, Jin-Hwan,Park, Joon-Sang The Korean Society of Phycology 2008 ALGAE Vol.23 No.3

        A study on the fine structure of the marine diatom Thalassiosira has been carried out during the periods from January 2007 to March 2008 in Korean coastal waters. As the third series of the Thalassiosira species, a fine structure, description, distribution and taxonomic remarks of the six Thalassiosira species were observed by means of light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The critical features of Thalassiosira species were a shape of external tubes of marginal strutted processes and labiate process. Six species showed each different shape of external tubes, marginal strutted processes and labiate process. The shape of external tube was divided into five types: T shape of Thalassiosira curviseriata, small-rounded shape of T. lundiana, double-layer form and flame shape of T. nordenskioeldii, tulip shape of T. punctigera and tooth-shape of T. tenera. This external character may be able to key character for positive identification of the Thalassiosira species. Of these Thalassiosira lundiana, T. minuscula and T. tenera were new records for Korean coastal waters.


        Morphology and phylogenetic position of a freshwater Prasiola species (Prasiolales, Chlorophyta) in Korea

        Kim, Moon Sook,Jun, Man-Sig,Kim, Cho A,Yoon, Jihae,Kim, Jin Hee,Cho, Ga Youn The Korean Society of Phycology 2015 ALGAE Vol.30 No.3

        The genus of leafy green algae, Prasiola Meneghini, includes marine, terrestrial, and freshwater species. A total of 11 species and one variety have been identified in China, Korea, and Japan. In Korea, Prasiola formosana var. coreana has been reported in Muncheon, North Korea, while a different type of Prasiola species has been reported in South Korea. The South Korean species has been found growing along a small stream originating from Chodanggul Cave, a limestone cave in Samcheok, Gangwon Province. Here, we revised the morphological characteristics of the South Korean Prasiola species and analyzed plastid rbcL, psaB, and tufA genes to clarify its identity. Although the external and anatomical morphologies varied among individuals, our results were very similar to previous reports. Plastid three genes sequences of the South Korean specimens were identical to those of P. japonica collected from Japan as well as to published sequences of P. yunnanica from China. A short rbcL-3P sequence (196 bp) from P. formosana var. coreana, which was identified in the type specimen, was also identical to a sequence from P. japonica. These Prasiola species and variety from Korea, Japan, and China are all distributed in areas characterized by limestone bedrock. Based on morphological, phylogenetic, and distributional features, the South Korean Prasiola species is regarded herein as P. japonica. Here, we also propose to synonymize P. formosana var. coreana and P. yunnanica with P. japonica.


        Morphology and taxonomy of the planktonic diatom Chaetoceros species (Bacillariophyceae) with special intercalary setae in Korean coastal waters

        Lee, Sang-Deuk,Lee, Jin-Hwan The Korean Society of Phycology 2011 ALGAE Vol.26 No.2

        Species of the diatom genus Chaetoceros with special intercalary setae are uncommon. For this study, we collected Chaetoceros species from August 2008 to September 2009 in Korean coastal waters and examined the ultra structures of the Chaetoceros species C. coarctatus, C. compressus var. hirtisetus, C. contortus, C. diversus, and C. messanensis, using light and scanning electron microscopy. C. coarctatus, in the subgenus Phaeoceros, showed longer and stronger spines than those found in other species. C. coarctatus and C. diversus had special intercalary setae with spines in straight arrangements, whereas C. compressus var. hirtisetus, C. contortus, and C. messanensis had special intercalary setae with spines arranged in spirals. The setae of C. coarctatus had spines that were robust toward the tips and, overall, longer and stronger than were those of other species. C. coarctatus and C. diversus were straight, and C. compressus var. hirtisetus, C. contortus, and C. messanensis spiraled. C. messanensis had two types of special intercalary setae, both forked: 1 with spines in spirals and 1 lacking spines. We did not find spines on the anterior part of divergent point of the special intercalary setae of C. messanensis. Foramina shapes of these 5 Chaetoceros species varied as follows: very small or no foramina in C. coarctatus, relatively wide and slightly centrally constricted foramina in C. compressus var. hirtisetus and C. contortus, quite narrowly slitted or no foramina in C. diversus, and lanceolate or hexagonal foramina in C. messanensis. We found rimoportula in both intercalary and terminal valves of C. coarctatus, but C. compressus var. hirtisetus, C. contortus, C. diversus, and C. messanensis only had rimoportula in terminal valves. In addition, C. compressus var. hirtisetus and C. contortus were new to Korean coastal waters.


        Interactions between marine bacteria and red tide organisms in Korean waters

        Seong, Kyeong Ah,Jeong, Hae Jin The Korean Society of Phycology 2013 ALGAE Vol.28 No.4

        There is increasing interest in the relationships between marine bacteria and red tide organisms. Some bacteria are known to kill red tide organisms, and may be responsible for accelerating the termination of red tides. Thus, certain algicidal bacteria have been proposed for the control of red tides. Meanwhile, many red tide organisms are known to feed on marine bacteria. The roles of marine bacteria and red tide organisms are therefore reversible. In Korean waters, the killing of red tide organisms by algicidal bacteria, and also the feeding of red tide organisms on marine bacteria have been extensively investigated. The findings of such studies may influence the conventional view of red tide dynamics, and also planktonic food webs. Here, we review the species and concentrations of algicidal bacteria that kill red tide organisms in Korean waters, as well as the ingestion rate and grazing impact of red tide organisms on marine bacteria. Furthermore, we offer an insight into the ecological roles of these 2 components in marine planktonic food webs.

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