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        탄성지반과 판의 접촉압력해석에 관한 연구

        조현영,정진환,김성도,한층목,Cho, Hyun Yung,Cheung, Jin Hwan,Kim, Seong Do,Han, Choong Mok 대한토목학회 1992 대한토목학회논문집 Vol.12 No.1

        A method analizing contact pressure between plate and elastic half space is presented by using F.E.M. With the method, the pressure intensities at surface nodes of half space cae be directly calculated by using flexibility matrix of half space. The method is originally presented by Y.K. Cheung et al.(3) Insted of Y.K. Cheung's method, which use a conception of equi-contact pressure area around each surface nodes of half space in the noded rectanqular element area. We use the equi-contact pressure area around the Gaussian integration points of half space surface in the noded isoparametric element area. Numarical examples are presented and compared with other's studies. 지반을 반무한 탄성체로 가정할 때 판과 지반간의 접촉압력을 유한요소법으로 해석하는 방법은 크게 두 가지로 생각할 수 있다. 그중 가장 직접적인 방법은 판과 지반을 모두 요소로 분할하는 방법이다. 즉 판은 평판요소로 지반은 유한한 범위에서 입체요소로 분할하는 방법을 말한다. 이 방법은 지반의 강성도행렬이 과대해지고 만약 상부구조가 판이 아닌 큰 규모의 구조물일 경우에는 전체강성도행렬이 너무 커지고 강성도행렬의 대폭도 대단히 커지게 되어 실용적 방법이라 할 수 없다. 또 한 가지 방법은 반무한 탄성체의 표면에 집중하중이 작용하는 경우에 대한 Boussinesq의 해를 이용하여 지반전체를 한개의 요소로 취급하는 방법이다. 이 방법을 택할 경우에는 판과 지반의 총접촉절점수와 같은 차수인 유연도행렬의 역을 구해야 한다. 더구나 유연도행렬은 대폭이 행렬의 차수와 동일하고 비대칭이므로 그 역을 구하는 것이 결코 실용적이라 할수 없다. 본 연구에서는 역행렬을 구하는 과정을 회피하는 한가지 방법으로 접촉절점에서의 접촉압력을 먼저 구하여 반력분포를 결정한 다음 상부구조와 지반의 변위 및 응력을 개별적으로 구하는 방법을 사용한다. 이 방법은 Cheung 등이 최초로 사절점 직사각형요소에 대하여 이론상으로만 제안한 것이나, 판의 절점위치에서의 등가접지압이 일정한 지배영역에 등분포한다고 가정하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 8절점 등매개변수요소를 이용하여 곡선경계의 요소분할이 가능하도록 하였고 판의 한 요소와 접하는 지반영역을 Gauss 적분의 가중값과 통일한 넓이의 소영역들로 분할하여 각 소영역에 Gauss 적분점에서의 접지압이 등분포한다고 보고 계산한 점이 다르다.

      • Listening is prerequisite to other language skills

        Cheung, Yun-Kul 釜山外國語大學校 2005 外大論叢 Vol.30 No.-

        듣는 능력과 말하는 능력이 상호 연계되어 있기 때문에 언어의 의사소통 능력은 이 두 능력의 정도에 따라 결정지어 진다. 조사에 따르면, 다른 언어적 능력, 즉, 말하기, 읽기, 쓰기 능력을 발달시키는데 듣기가 선행되어야 된다고 증명하고 있다. 듣기 능력을 향상시키는 것은 다른 기술습득에게까지 긍적적인 결과를 가져올 것이다. 듣기능력은 단지 받아들이기만 하는 능력이 아니라 인지적 과정에 따라 선별하고 분석하여 구분하는 일련의 사고적 행위이다. 이 논문의 목적은 한국 학생들이 영어를 이해하고 사용하는 데 왜 계속해서 큰 어려움을 가지는 지에 대한 이유를 논의하고, 듣기 이해의 중요성과 다른 언어적 능력으로의 전이에 관한 논문이다. 또한 이 논문은 영어 교수법에 있어 변화의 필요성르 제시하고 언어소통의 향상을 위한 방법과 연구결과를 다루고 있다.

      • KCI등재
      • 중국거주 조선족 여성의 영적 안녕정도가 정신건강에 미치는 영향

        정성덕,이종범,김진성,서완석,배대석,박순재,주열,염형욱,김승원,김구묘,안영록,황대홍,표미자,조창열,정태길 영남대학교 의과대학 2004 Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine Vol.21 No.2

        자아초월 정신의학이 체계화되면서 영성(spirituality)은 인성의 한 부분이라는 이론이 대두되었는데 이 영성은 정신건강에 큰 영향을 미친다고 했다. 인간의 성향 중 영적 안녕 정도를 파악하여 그 정도가 정신건강 중 허위성 경향, 정신병적 경향 및 불안과 우울 경향 등에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지를 조사하고저 본 연구를 실시하였다. 대상은 중국의 연변 조선족 자치구에 거주하는 여성 400명을 대상으로 하여 한국판 영적 안녕척도를 사용하여 영적 안녕정도를 파악하였다. 영적 안녕척도의 총점과 이 척도의 2개 하위 척도인 종교적 안녕과 실존적 안녕 척도 양자로 평가한 성적이 불안-우울통합척도와 정신분열증 척도 및 허위성 척도로 평가한 성적에 미치는 영향을 검증하기 위하여 상관관계분석 및 회기분석을 실시하였다. 그 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 영적 안녕척도로 평가한 조선족 여성의 총점은 68.29로 한국의 기독교 여성이 평가한 100.65보다 훨씬 낮은 점수였다. 2) 불안·우울통합척도로 평가한 총점은 44.88로 연변노인이 평가한 점수와 일개지역의 한국농촌주민이 평가한 점수와 비슷한 결과였다. 3) 허위성 척도로 평가한 성적은 평균 74.57로 70점 이상이 86%(344명)이었으나 영적 안녕 성적과 허위성 성적 간에는 유의한 상관이 없었다. 4) 영적 안녕총점은 정신분열증 척도로 평가한 정신병적 경향에 유의한 영향을 미치지 않았으나 종교적 안녕하위척도의 성적은 정신병적 경향을 높여준데 비하여 실존적 안녕하위척도의 성적은 정신병적 경향을 낮게 해주었다. 5) 영적 안녕척도의 총점 및 두 하위척도인종교적 안녕과 실존적 안녕은 불안과 우울에유의한 상관을 보였는데 영적 안녕총점이 높을수록 불안·우울 총점이 다소 낮아지는 경향을 보였다. 6) 종교적 안녕 하위척도와 불안과 우울과의 관계는 종교적 안녕점수가 높을수록 불안과 우울을 각각 다소 유의하게 높여주었으며 이에 비하여 실존적 안녕하위척도와 불안과 우울과의 관계는 실존적 안녕정도가 높을수록 불안 및 우울점수는 유의하게 낮아졌다. 이와 같은 성적을 미루어볼 때 연변에 거주하는 조선족 여성이 평가한 영적 안녕정도는 정신병적 경향과 불안 및 우울에 유의한 상관을 보였으면 이 척도의 하위 척도인 종교적 안녕정도는 정신건강에 부정적인 영향을 미치는 반면 실존적 안녕정도는 정신건강에 긍정적 영향을 미친 결과로 평가되었다. 이러한 결과는 공산주의 사회에서 실존적 안녕은 긍정적인 가치관으로 평가되는 반면 종교적 안녕은 정신건강에 부정적으로 작용한 것을 입증해 주었다고 하겠다. Background: Spirituality has been an important part of Transpersonal Psychology and is believed to have a large effect on the mental health because it has been systematized. The aim of this study was to determine the level of spiritual disposition on human beings along with its effects on one's mental health. Materials and Methods: The study targeted 400 women residing in Youn-Gil city of JiLin Prov., which is a district of the Cho-Sun tribe in China. Their spiritual well-being was studied using the Spiritual Well-being Scale-Korean Version. The spiritual well-being scale consists of 2 sub-scales of religious well-being and existential well-being. The study was evaluated using a lie scale, psychotic trend, and a combined anxiety-depression scale. The results were considered to be factors of one's mental health. The correlation between the spiritual well-being and each tendency was analyzed by regression analysis. Results: The total score of the Cho-Sun tribal women according to the spiritual well-being scale was 68.29 which was much less than the 100.65 of Korean Christian women. There was no significant correlation between the spiritual well-being and the Lie trend. However, it was found that 86%(344) of Cho-Sun tribal women scored above 70 in the Lie trend with a mean score of 74.57 which is higher than normal populations. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and psychotic trend, the psychotic trend became significantly higher when the religious well-being was at a high level. On the other hand, the psychotic trend became significantly lower when the existential well-being was at a high level. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and anxiety, the anxiety was significantly higher when the religious well-being was at a high level. However, the anxiety level was significantly low when the existential well-being was at a high level. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and depression, the depression level was somewhat significantly high when the religious well-being was at a high level. However, the depression level was significantly low when the existential well-being was at a high level. Conclusion: This study evaluated the effects of spiritual well-being on a person's mental health among Cho-Sun tribal women in Youn-Gil city of JiLIn Prov., P.R. of China. The results found that the religious well-being, which is a sub-scale of spiritual well-being, had negative effects while the existential well-being had positive effects on the mental health. These results proved that a person's religious disposition had negative effects on their mental health in a communitarian society.

      • 世宗大王의 文化事業中 樂整理考 (上)

        崔正如 淸州大學校 1958 論文集 Vol.2 No.1

        Ⅰ. It is a too well known fact not only in this country but also to the world that the Korean letter (alphabet) was invented in King Se-Jong's reign of culture. so, it seems that "Se-Jong" means "han-geul", the Korean alphabet, and "han-geul", represents all the oultural activities of Se-Jong. But, on the contrary, his achievement in culture was not confined to "han-geul"only, as illustrated in the books: "A study on the Culture at the Jip Hyun Jon (national academy at that time)" by Lee Kwang-Rin, and "Se-Jong's Welfare work and the Independent Medical Develapment" by Kim Du-Jong. Another field in which he made a great success was music, which has not been so well known generally. Let us take an example in making of the "Kyung", as musical instrument made of stone, among so many others he made. He employed 130 artisans for 5 years to make 526 pieces of the "Kyung". If you allow men to each artisan and pay 1,000 whan (Korean money) per day in average to each worker, you will get a surprising account as follows: Total days: 1,800 Number of workers: 520 Number of day's work: 936,000 Total wage: 936,000,000 Whan If it includes expenses of making the costumes and other musical instruments, it will be a tremendous amount. With this fact alone, it is not hard to see how important the business was. Considering that nowadays some bitter arguments are aften raised on building a hall on the ground that it will cost a big amount of money say, several hundred million whan, to make musical instruments even at a cost below ape hundred million would be unimaginable thing, though the present conditions are different from those of that time. That this undertaking had almost continuously been under discussion for 31 years shows that it was quite a singular task that could not be found in any other history in the world. In this pespect, here I made an adjustment on some materials I have collected through years with a feeling that it might be helpful for the students to know how such a great work was performed, though I am not a music student myself. Ⅱ. Favorable conditions for the work what were the conditions that made this great work continue for so many years and completion of the musical insturument pessible? 1. Agreeable conbfition of the time It was a time of peace as Se-Jong said, There was nothing within or without that could hinder his business. 2. Being not only a great schoar at that time well versed in philosophy, language, and music, but also an artist who could compose, he could aim at this business and push it through without any change. 3. Being an autocrat with an absolute power, he could mobilize men and materials as he wished. 4. He could with a great effeciency run the national academy, aresearch institution of arts and seience, that could be a theoretical foundation, and the ritual organ, the highest inquiry council composed of his able ministers. 5. The formation of the staff There were the top theorists such as whang Hi, Many Sa-Song, Chong In-Chi, Hur Cho, Shin Sang, Kwan Chin,Chong Cho,Yu Sa-Yul,Shin Chang, Kwon Do,Yaun Choon, Kim Ja-Chi, and Kim Jong-Su; and there were also men of both theoryand art such as park Yen, Nam Keup, anp Chong Yang with this perfect personnel administration, he could complete his work. 6. Using broomcorn millet as a material for tune adjustor, and "Mi-suk", a stone, in making the "Kyung" brought perfection to the work. This needs a special mention. As we saw in the above, it was quite a natural thing for Se-Jong to accomplish the adjustment work of music under such agreeable conditions. No supermatural power of him or anymystery was involved in this work. It there is anything we can praise him for, that is only his resolution unchangeable like a rock: "Creation in itself is a hard thing. If theking wants to do it, his ministers object it if ministers want to do it, king objects it; and if both king and the ministers want to do it, then the luck prevents it. Now that peace is with us at home and I have already made up my mind, only thing left to us is to combine our strength and sincerity to the full extent".

      • CRAWL STROKE의 限界에 關한 硏究 : 연령별 記錄변화를 中心으로

        南淸雄 호남대학교 1991 호남대학교 학술논문집 Vol.12 No.2

        The analyze the varieties of stroke number according to ages, records and the limet of stroke number of swimming player. i observed and measured the records of stroke number of 400men, 399 women by ages from ten to twenty On 50m, 100m, 400m free style events in swimming gala, and come to a conclusion as follows. 1. The minimun and maximum stroke number and average stroke number in 100m, 400m events decrease according to ages and genders. 2. The stroke number of each events and the tendency of decrease according to rise of age are devided low age-class inty high age-class on the two another type of recurrence-liner and it appears that the tendency of decrease of low age-class is higher than high-age-class 3. The minimum and maximum stroke number and average stroke number of each events are different from a rise in the record of both sexes and decrease. 4. The time required per I stroke in each events have a tendency to be lengthened by increage of age. 5. Each events have a tendency to by different from the record rise, and the time required per I stroke-have a tendency to lengthen. 6. There is limet in time required per I stroke and the value of low on the data abserved in 0.44 with the first 50m coverage. 7. The 50m of korean swimming players aged from ten to twenty is 33. 8. The relation between ages and stroke number bas a reversed relation, and although it is very high in 50m swimming, the extended relation of administration intervals is weak. 9. The relation of record and stroke number between two gender has a corelation, and according to the extension of adminstration intervals, the relation becomes weak. 10. The corelation of last stroke number and highway stroke number is very high. 11. The corelation of the time required and record appears the corelation coefficient of -0.8, -0.7 in each events, and the shortenting of the time required per I stroke has the tendency of making the record low.

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