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Wee, Hae-Kyung. 2015. An Event Semantics Approach to Sluicing vs. VP Ellipsis. This study proposes an account on contrasting grammaticality of sluicing and VP ellipsis based on davidsonian event semantics by arguing for a fundamental semantic difference between them. It is claimed that the elided event in sluicing is an old event, which is anaphorically referring back to the event denoted by the antecedent event, just like a pronoun, whereas the event of a VP ellipsis introduces a novel event. This can explain why sluicing usually occurs with an indefinite antecedent, whereas VPE cannot. (Dankook University)
Hae-In temple is located in Gaya Mountains, Hapcheon-gun, Korea and a thousand years old monastery. Tripitaka Koreana has been preserved during 750 years as good condition in Hae-In temple. The preservation technology is summarized as the passive design methods harmonized with the nature perfectly. Haein temple have dealt with a flow fields in the storage hall. In this study, an indoor and outdoor flow fields in the precincts of Haein temple were analysed with field measurement and numerical simulation. On the basis of the field measurement results, the restoration cases such as rearrangement of Tripitaka Koreana and relocation of the rear fence of Biro-Jean were analyzed with CFD.
本稿においては、李海渼(2014)に續き、「新情報提示受身文パタ-ン(①これから始まる新しい場面(情況)の登場、または新しい人物との出會い、②視覺的情報の說明的な描寫、③受身表現による描寫、④主人公の動作描寫/④´主人公の心情描寫、⑤本格的な物語が始まる)」の形成時期·背景及びその類型·機能を考察するため、受身文形成の轉換点に該當する近代日本の飜譯小說を分析した。分析對象とした4編の小說においても、現代小說に見られる<新情報提示受身文パタ-ン>が現われ、ⅰ)視点コントロ-ルによって舞台の外側にいた讀者を內側に引き入れることで、臨場感を持たせる機能、ⅱ)舞台の外側にいる讀者の視線を引き、重要な素材または人物へ集中させる機能、ⅲ)舞台の外側にいる讀者の視線を連續的に移動させながら距離感を調節して主な素材の登場に劇的效果をもたらす機能も同じく用いられた。 パタ-ンの形態面から見ると、パタ-ン內の要素の省略及び重複·結合の現象が現われ、現代小說に比べて<新情報提示受身文パタ-ン>の固着性が弱い方であると言える。しかし、小說の前半及び場面の重要度が高いほど①~⑤の完全な形のパタ-ンの形態を成し、ある程度物語が進むにつれて、類推可能な部分または主人公に感情移入し終えた小說の後半などにおいては縮約された形のパタ-ンが用いられるなど、このようなパタ-ンの構造の柔軟なバリエ-ションによって讀者の視点及び視線のコントロ-ルの機能の程度を調節しながら效率的に新しい情報を示している。 また、すべての新情報が<新情報提示受身文パタ-ン>として示されるのではなく、脇役(特に、主人公の前にたちはだかる「影」)のように感情移入する必要のない人物が新しく登場する場合、または新聞のようなメディアによって客觀的な事實報道が前揭され場合などでは<新情報提示受身文パタ-ン>が用いられないということを明らかにした。 以上のことから、主語に焦点を當てるような視点調節機能が他の文と有機的に結び付つことによって、效率的に新しい情報を提示する機能をもたらす受身文の效果は近代飜譯小說においても現われているということが分かった。 This paper, followed by Hae-mi, Lee(2014), considers the formation period, background and types and functions of the <Passive sentence pattern of new information presentation(It is called "Passive pattern" afterwards)>. Four translated fictions in modern Japan were analyzed and they were classified as the turning point of formation of passive sentence. There were five types of patterns for "passive sentences" ①The story shows a new scene(situation)/②Explanatory description of a visual information/③Description using passive expressions/④Movement of the main character/Feeling and thoughts of the main character/⑤It begins full-fledged story" There were "Passive pattern" for the subjects of analysis, and they had 3 functions in common with Japanese contemporary fictions: ⅰ) perspective controlled to draw the reader who was on the outside of the stage on the inside, and a sense of realism function to impart, ⅱ) pull the line of sight of the reader who is on the outside of the stage, the ability to focus to critical material or person, ⅲ) adjust the sense of distance while continuously moving the line of sight of the reader who is on the outside of the stage function that causes a dramatic effect on the appearance of the main materials. In the formal aspects of the pattern, the fixation of "Passive pattern" was weaker than contemporary fictions because of omissions, overlapping and combination of the elements in the pattern. However, the complete form of the pattern was appeared at the beginning of the fiction or the more important scene. Also, the variation of the form was used at the back of the fiction and situations that readers can guess the scene because of the background. In addition, not all of the new information is shown as " the Passive pattern" and supporting roles who do not need empathy or news did not use "Passive pattern". From the above, "Passive pattern" was used in the modern fictions as the same as comtemporary fictions.
The Historical Background in the Formative Period of the Earliest Community of Israel Park, Hae-Ryeong To explore the formation of the earliest community of Israel is one of the most contentious chapters in the historical studies of Israel. Although there are disagreements, some who would the Late Bronze-Iron Age transition is generally recognized as the earliest possible period to which Israel`s formative period may be traceable. At the close of the 13th century B.C. the rapid momentous changes occurred in the political and social fabric of Late Bronze Age society. Archaeologically, this is vividly illustrated by demographic redistribution and an increase in the settled population, especially in the central hill country and Transjordanian highlands. According to the archaeological evidences, the finds indicate that the new people who constitutes the earliest community of Israel inhabited the highlands of central Canaan beginning in about 1200 B.C., the period of the Israelite Judges. The people settled in that region that eventually became Israel did not begin to form any kind of identity as a distinctive social entity called Israel until Iron Age I. Archaeological excavations of this period of time which started with the collapse of the older order - the Late Bronze, Canaanite city-states under Egyptian domination, indicate that the collapse was a gradual decline that started in the 13th century and lasted until the late 12th century B.C. The traditions of the Old Testament describe the land of Canaan as a fragmented multi-national land: inhabited by Canaanites, Horites, Hivites, Jebusites, Perizites, Hittites, Girgashites, and subsequently Philistines. From the ANE documents we know the peoples, such as Amorites, Hurrians, Habiru, Arameans. Some of these peoples, especially the sea peoples and the nomadic peoples immigrated to Canaan, others may have been part of the indigenous population. These inhabitants most likely comprised different elements of Late Bronze Age society, namely, the indigenous and nonindigenous populations. In conclusion, with the decline of Egyptian influence and power over Canaan during the 12th century B.C., some of its inhabitants constitute the earliest community of Israel.
포유류의 일주기 조절에는 두 종류의 cryptochrome(Cry1과 Cry2)이 관여하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 흰쥐에서 Cry1과 Cry2 유전자의 일주기적인 발현을 suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN)조직과 근육 조직에서 real-time PCR로 조사하였다. SCN 조직에서 Cry1과 Cry2의 발현 정도는 밤낮의 변화에 따른 일주기적인 리듬을 보여주고 있다. 근육 조직 또한 SCN과는 약간 다르지만 분명하게 Cry1과 Cry2의 일주기적인 발현을 하고 있다. 따라서 이 결과는 Cry1과 Cry2가 SCN 조직에서 중추적인 생체시계와 근육조직에서 말단 생체시계의 역할을 하고 있음을 강력히 시사하고 있다. In mammals, two types of cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry2) are known to involve in the regulation of circadian rhythm. Circadian expression of rat Cry1 and Cry2 mRNA was examined in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and muscle tissues by real-time PCR. The expression level of Cry1 and Cry2 mRNA in SCN showed circadian rhythm with a peak at the time of day/night transition. Muscle also exhibited the circadian pattern of the expression of Cry1 and Cry2 mRNA at slightly different with that of SCN. It is, therefore, strongly suggested that Cry1 and Cry2 play an important role in central clock of SCN and peripheral clock in muscle.
한류문화가 동아시아에서 인기를 끄는 원인은 어디에 있는가? 초기 칼럼니스트들이 내놓은 답변은 첫째, 아시아 주민이 가진 공통적 감수성을 강조하는 것, 둘째, 미국이나 일본 선진국 대중문화의 폭력성과 선정성을 거론하는 논리, 셋째, 아시아 지역에 팽배한 반일감정과 관련된 것 등이었다고 분류한다. 또한 한류의 성공원인을 "우리도 미처 몰랐던 한국인 특유의 기질, 이른바 한류 DNA"에서 찾았다. 이야기를 좋아하고 남의 일에 사사건건 참견하며 ``빨리빨리``를 외치는 성질 급한 한국인의 민족성이 소프트 산업이 화두로 떠올라 21세기에 단점 아닌 장점으로 통했다"는 것이다. 그리고 "상호 이질적인 ``현실감각과 판타지가 조화를 이루게 하는 것이 한국산 드라마가 아시아를 석권할 수 있는 이유"라고 주장한다. 한류는 한편으로 자본축적의 수단으로 삼으려는 문화 산업론 또는 경제적 관점이 있으며, 다른 한편으로 한류를 오늘날의 자본주의의 재생산 매커니즘으로 작용하는 소비자본주의의 현상으로 치부하는 비판적 관점이 있다. 후자의 관점에서 보았을 때 "한국과 동아시아의 21세기 문화적 관계망은 철저히 자본의 논리가 주도하고 있다. 한류란 이들 거대 문화자본이 기획 조정하는 문화산업 버전"이라는 발언에 주목하고자 한다. 또한 한류문화는 문화의 자본화, 탈상업주의, 탈식민주의, 탈서구중심주의의 시각, 신자유주의의 관점 등 다양한 관점과 논의가 존재한다. 이 글에서 필자는 한류의 대중문화에서 드러난 다양한 관점 중에서 문화의 자본화와 탈상업주의적 시각을 한정하여 살펴보고자 한다. Cultural Exchange, Hallyu Culture, and Future of Hallyu:Focused on Capitalization and Post-commercialism Yang, Hae-Rim What would bring the popularity of Hallyu culture in East Asia? Some answers from early columnists were classified as, first, to emphasize shared sensitivity as Asian people second, a logic of mentioning violence and lasciviousness of pop culture in advanced country including the U. S. or Japan and the last, what is associated with the flood tide of anti-Japanese all over the Asia. In addition, the reason for Hallyu`s success was referred to "Koreans own tendency, which we Koreans didn`t even notice―Hallyu DNA". According to this opinion, it was ethnicity of Koreansthat has become the conversation topic in soft industry, transforming ethnicity of Korean from weakness to strength in 21st century; Koreans love to talk, like to poke their nose into every affair of others, and are often quick in temper shouting out "quick, quick, and quick". Also, it was claimed that Korean soap opera swept over the whole Asia was credited with the harmony of realistic sense and fantasy, which were mutually heterogeneous. Hallyu has been viewed as an instrument of capital accumulation on cultural industry perspective or economic perspective, while it has been criticized as it was regarded as phenomenon of consuming capitalism, operating as a mechanism of reproduction of capitalism today. According to the latter view, this study focuses on the comment that network of 21st century in Korea and East Asia is thoroughly led by thelogic of capitalism. Thus, Hallyu is a version of cultural industry that is planned and controlled by the huge cultural capital. Furthermore, Hallyu culture has been viewed and discussed on various perspectives such as capitalization of culture, post-commercialism, post-colonism, post-western-centrism, and neoliberalism. This study is delimited for capitalization and anti-commercialism of culture among a variety of perspectives of Hallyu in pop culture.
일반적으로 알고 있는 벽지불의 개념을 새롭게 정립할 필요가 있음은 초기불교 전통에서 벽지불이 ``홀로 깨달았다``란 어원적 이미지가 전혀 낯설지 않게 작용하여, 벽지불이 행한 행적들과 수행하는 모습은 대중들에게 신비적이고 존경의 대상이었다는 점을 간과하고 있기 때문이다. "홀로(eka)"는 문자적 의미가 아니라 상징적으로 종교적 삶 속으로 들어간다는 의미이다. 벽지불은 스승 없이 깨달아서 사람들에게 복과 이익을 주고 천상에 태어나게 하게 하는 이유로 존경의 대상이다. 벽지불에게 공양해서 공덕을 쌓는 에피소드는 보시와 공덕의 관계를 새로운 시각으로 바라볼 수 있게 한다. 텍스트에서 벽지불의 위상은 역사적 건축물 속에서도 실행되었기에 잊혀져가고 있는 존재를 떠올리게 한다. 현장은 인도를 방문한 7세기 동안, 많은 스뚜빠가 벽지불을 기념하여 세워진 것을 발견한다. 벽지불의 위상은 스뚜빠로 이행되어 존재감을 이어갔다. 붓다와 벽지불은 동시에 함께 존재할 수 없다. 다른 대다수의 학자들은 벽지불의 출현이 무불시대의 현상이라고 믿는다. 붓다와 아라한, 그리고 벽지불이 가진 성격들로 인해 그들 사이에 차이는 있다. 벽지불의 신통력은 텍스트에서 주목되어 그에게 공양하여 전생에 쌓은 공덕이 중요한 미래 삶을 좌우한다. 벽지불의 신통력은 붓다만큼이나 그의 위상을 대변한다. 벽지불이 가진 근본적이고 보수적 이미지를 재고하고 탈피하 게끔 만들 수 있는 치밀한 고증들이 존재하기에 ``벽지불에 대한 새로운 이해``에 관련된 논의가 가능하리라 본다. There is a need to establish a new concept we generally know as pratyekabuddha. "Self-enlightenment (or realization by self alone)" in the early Buddhist tradition is not uncommon. Just look at the mystical and performance arts of the pratyekabuddha in respect to the public as the audience. The literal meaning of "eka (or alone)," is to enter into religious life symbolically. Hae-Young, Won This is special because in pratyekabuddha, there is no teacher and the enlightenment comes to the self without guidance from a teacher. This is the reason to give blessing and benefit to the people born in the heaves in respect to pratyekabuddha. Building merits as offerings were a clearly professed practice in pratyekabuddha. As recorded in the Buddhist text, Hsuan-tsang, he visited India during the seventh century and visited numerous pratyekabuddha stupas. Pratyekabuddha and Buddha cannot exist simultaneously in a single era. Many scholars believe that the emergence of pratyekabuddha was during the period where ``Non-Buddha`` phenomenon prevailed. The magical powers of pratyekabuddha were noted in the early Buddhist texts. The merit gained in one``s previous life is important to the future life. The magical powers that are taught by pratyekabuddha are a distinct characteristic of the practice. Stock images are fundamentally about pratyekabuddha and tend to be conservative. In this manner, his images can be newly reestablished. And this is possible through the careful historical research of the past and even present.
The purpose of this study is to examine sexual perceptions and conflicts among Korean teenage girls who have been involved in 'compensated dates,' which is a form of sex work that may be temporarily undertaken by young girls or may lead on to prostitution. I have collected data from 12 girls, using in-depth interviews, who had experienced sexual abuse, and economic deprivation. These girls were rather maladjusted and had been abandoned by their families and schools. Their involvement in compensated dates began out of economic necessity, as they had run away from home. Sexual abuse was reportedly common for the majority of the respondents who had also suffered poverty and unhappy family lives. So these girls tended to seek compensated dates to overcome poverty. With poor education and skills, the girls viewed compensated dates as an easy strategy in the face of privation. In addition, the consumer society encouraged them to become sexually promiscuous to earn money, in order to buy and own more and more goods. The sexual conflict and ambivalence experienced by them were outcomes of their sense of sexual subjectivity. They saw their bodies as resources that were exchangeable for money, but they did not realize the internalized oppression they endured. They knew their bodies were a means of pleasure, but did not realize that sexual violence underlies it. The development of a stronger sense of self may resolve the conflict between the girls' curiosities and experiences concerning their bodies and sexuality.
The genetic variation and the molecular discrimination of Scapharca species in Korea were investigated through the mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses. A partial portion (646 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) for these species was analyzed by DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed both S. broughtonii and S. satowi formed a sister group, with then S. subcrenata clustered with the clade. It was assumed that all Scapharca species could form a monophyletic clade, with high bootstrap support (99%). In order to effectively discriminate the morphologically hard to classified spats, a PCR-RFLP diagnostic marker was developed with two restriction enzyme (HaeⅢ and HinfI) digestions. Digestion of the 646-bp fragments of the COI gene amplified from each species with HaeⅢ produced no fragment in the S. broughtonii, and two fragments, but of different sizes in S. satowi and S. subcrenata. In the HinfI digestion, two distinct fragments were produced in S. broughtonii and S. subcrenata, but no fragment in S. satowi. Twenty individuals from each population were digested by these two restriction enzymes, but no individual variations occurred.