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This study analyzes on the manufacturing of the Korean traditional flute, Geum. The major findings are as follows: (1) Including Hyungeum, Gayageum and Bipa, Geum is one of the Korean traditional musical instruments which have been played early since the period of King Yuri in the Shilla Dynasty. (2) Geum is classified into three types, referred to as Daegeum, Junggeum and Sogeum, and each one can be played on 324, 245 and 298 kinds of melody. (3) There are various styles for playing Geum, for example, the Akhakgwebeom published by Seong Hyeon and others, describes seven ways of fingering. (4) The manufacturing of the Korean traditional Geum has almost disappeared because of some reasons, like differences in scale between eastern and western music, and problems in making a livelihood. (5) I try to restore the way of manufacturing the Korean traditional Geum with Kim Tae-Hyeon who is a master craftsman and a player of Daegeum, referring to the way of manufacturing Geum described in the Akhakgwebeom.
The taxonomy of the species of the family Bagridae from Korea is reviewed and the keys to the following eight species of Korean bagrid fishes are presented: Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (RICHARDSON), P. nitidus (SAUVAGE and THIERSANT), Pseudobagrus ussuriensis (DIBOWSKY), Ps. sp. UCHIDA, Leiocassis longirostris GU¨NTHER, Coreobagrus brevicorpus MORI, Liobagrus andersoni REGAN, and L. mediadiposalis MORI. Among them P. nitidus, previously known only from Chinese waters, is firstly recorded from 26 specimens collected mainly off the lower course along the Geum River in the present study. Comparison with P. vachelli of which many paper have recorded from Korea, shows that P. nitidus differs from it in number of gill raker(9-11) and in the short length of its maxillary barbels. The 36 bagrid specimens, which were collected in the Han and Geum River in this study was identified as Pseudobagrus ussuriensis of which the species identification was not confirmed formerly in Korea. The critical examinations of the specimens and the previous discriptions refered to Ps. ussuriensis and Ps. emerginatus SOWERBY (Not REGAN) revealed that Ps. emerginatus mostly used in Korea is a synonym of Ps. ussuriensis. Ps. sp. UCHIDA is clearly distinguishable from other twelve relative species of the genus Pseudobagrus on the bases such as the length of maxillary barbel, serrate structure on the anterior part of pectoral spine, and several morphometric characters. Therefore Pseudobagrus sp. is regarded as a valid species. The six atypical specimens of the genus Liobagrus collected in the Geum River are considered to be natural hybrid between L. andersoni and L. mediadiposalis on the basis of the length of jaw and of the number of feeble teeth on the posterior part its pectoral spine. Interspecific relationships were investigated in the species of Korean bagrid fishes on the basis of the features of the morphological characters and the pattern of aqueous soluble muscle protein.
The synchronous machine is compatible to the induction motors for a large drive system, like a pumping loads of plants, on its economic, simple implementation and reliability. Also, the synchronous motor and the PWM converters have some advantages such as unity power factor, low harmonic and evergy regeneration. This paper presents simulation results of adjustable speed drive system of a synchronous motor supplied by a PWM ac-dc-ac converter under controlling of incorporated "volts/Hz" and "separated d-q voltage vector controllers". The former is used to operate the synchronous motor near unity power factor by controlling the voltages of d and q axes separately.System modeling and simulation were performed under the environment of commercial software MATLAB/SIMULINK package.
본 연구에서는 정읍 전금순ㆍ신안의 유점자ㆍ해남의 안애임ㆍ순천의 박경자ㆍ전주의 성화춘ㆍ익산의 유지연 등의 호남지역 세습무들을 중심으로 호남지역 세습무 집단의 권역과 문화적 갈래ㆍ무 문화 전승 기반과 특징ㆍ신청을 기반으로 한 전통 예술 창안 및 예능 활동ㆍ무문화의 위상과 전망 등에 대해 자세히 살펴보았다. 호남지역의 무 문화는 세습무 집단의 무업권을 기반으로 생성ㆍ전승해온 문화이지만, 세습무 집단은 무 문화만 생성하고 전승한 것이 아니었다. 무업과 연예를 겸할 수 있었던 재인들은 무 문화 속에 내포되어 있던 예술 장르를 더욱 새롭게 가공하여 다양한 전통 공연 문화를 창안해냈다. 신청은 지방 관아나 중앙 관아의 연희 행사에 동원될 예능인의 육성처이자 공급처였다고 할 수 있는데, 무부들은 신청을 기반으로 판소리 명창ㆍ기악 명인ㆍ농악 명인ㆍ줄타기 광대 등으로 성장할 수 있었다. 신청이 쇠락하던 일제강점기에는 일반인이나 기생 특히 세습무계 출신의 여자들이 신청에 가입하여 무부들의 기예를 전수받았다. 호남지역 세습무 집단이 생성ㆍ전승해온 무당굿, 삼현육각의 시나위 음악, 걸궁굿 등은 호남지역을 대표하는 무 문화의 갈래들이라 할 수 있다. 무당굿은 세습무와 재인들의 연합으로 연행되어 온 무 문화의 중심 갈래였고, 시나위는 재인들의 무속 반주 음악이었으며, 걸궁굿은 재인들로 구성된 걸궁패들이 풍물로 무의식을 행한 무 문화의 한 갈래였던 것이다. 이러한 무문화는 한국 전통 예술 문화를 태동시킨 중요한 원천이 되었다. 특히 문학ㆍ음악ㆍ기악ㆍ무용 등을 내포하고 있는 세습무의 무당굿은 판소리ㆍ기악 산조ㆍ한국 무용 등의 전통 예술을 창출하는 데 결정적인 역할을 하였다. This study has examined in detail regions where hereditary shaman troupes were active, their cultural branches, basis and characteristics of traditional shamanism culture transmission, origination of traditional arts centered on shaman temple and their art activities, status of traditional shamanism culture and its prospect, with focus on Honam's hereditary shaman performed by Jeon Geum Sun from Jeongeup, Yu Jeom Ja from Shinan, Ahn Ae Im from Haenam, Bak Gyeong Ja from Suncheon, Seong Hwa Chun from Jeonju and Yu Ji Yeon from Iksan. Shamanism performed in Honam area are a culture which was originated and handed down based on shaman rites of hereditary shaman troupes. Shamanism culture was, however, by no means all that traditional shaman troupes created and handed down to next generation. Men and women of talents who were capable of holding shaman rites for a living and also performing art activities created a variety of traditional performing arts by newly processing art genre involved in shamanism culture. Shaman temples are considered to be places of bringing up and supplying professional entertainers called out for banquets hosted by local or central government offices. Shaman troupers could grow to become masters of Pansori, instrumental music, instrumental music of peasants or tightrope walker etc. while they were settled in shaman temples. During Japanese colonial rule when shaman temples were on the decline, ordinary citizens, gisaeng or Korean counterpart of Geisha and especially girls from hereditary shaman troupes joined shaman temples to learn exquisite arts of shaman troupers. Shaman rites, ensembles played by 6 instruments including 3 string instruments and beggar's rites created and handed down by hereditary shaman troupes are considered to be branches of traditional shamanism culture representing Honam area. Shaman rite was the main branch of traditional shamanism culture performed jointly by hereditary shaman troupes and acrobatic tumblers. Shinawi was musical accompaniment to the shaman rite held by talented men and women. Geolgung Gut or beggar's rite was a shaman rite performed by beggars consisting of acrobatic tumblers playing Korean folk instruments including percussion and represented a branch of Korean shamanism culture. As such, traditional shamanism culture was important driving force behind Korea's traditional arts and culture. Especially, shaman rite held by hereditary shaman troupes, involving literature, music, instrumental music and dance played a decisive role in creating such Korean traditional arts as Pansori, Korean instrumental solo and Korean dance.
This research was to stud the chemical component of Pleurotus ferulae fruiting body cultivated on mixture of agricultural wastes on the proximate composition, amino acid, and fatty acids. The concentrations of moisture, ash protein, fiber, carbohydrate, and fat of fresh fruiting body of P.ferulae were 85.3, 1.0 2.8 3.0,6.7, and 1.2%, respectively. Among sugars, the concentrations of sugar were in the order of Mannitol> Thehalose> Glucose> Fructose> Maltose> Sucrose and their concentration were 12.6, 8.4, 6.8 1.6, 0.9, and 0.05 mg/g, respectively. Among vitamins, the concentrations of vitamin were in the order of Vitamin E> Vitamin C> Vitamin B1> Vitamin D> Vitamin B1> Vitamin A and their concentrations were 36,97, 16.92, 1.64,0,79,0.30, and 0.23 mg/g respectively. Among various fatty acids, linoleic acid and palmitic acid were highest, 70.2 and 13.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that P.ferulae fruiting body cultivated on mixture of agricultural wastes has a good potential to be a resource for food and pharmaceutical uses.
This essay explores the process of Jhumpa Lahiri's protagonist Gogol Ganguli's identity formation in The Namesake by using M. M. Bakhtin's concept of the “participative self.” In accordance with Bakhtin's argument, all human beings have no choice but to be participative in their reality because they are drawn to certain emotional-volitional moments.I, the other, and I-for-the-other., and be in relation with others as long as they live. And in order for a novel to be a “fair” copy, it must not only contain detailed descriptions of the hero's inner “I” actively interacting with others, but its content has to also become something historical and cultural. Nevertheless, by intervening in almost all moments of Gogol's life and very often telling his story like her own, Lahiri fails to smoothly narrate all the processes of achieving his hero's multicultural identity. In this novel, she characterizes Gogol as extremely passive and vulnerable, which causes him to look like a diffident and passive participant in his life. Therefore, Lahiri's narrative failure results from Gogol's lack of participation. From start to finish Gogol is portrayed as an inexplicably maladjusted person who can't digest “awkward truths” in the Indian community, and can't accept American culture actively. Methodologically, in The Namesake, there are many narratives about “myself” I see, “I” others observe, and “others” I perceive but there are also too frequently severance and omission of narration, which consequentially decreases the persuasiveness.