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      • KCI우수등재

        소 모색관련 유전자 MC1R 의 RCR - RFLP Marker 를 이용한 한우육 판별

        정의룡,김우태,김연수,한상기 한국동물자원과학회 2000 한국축산학회지 Vol.42 No.4

        The melanocortin 1 receptor(MClR) plays a central role in regulation of eumelanin(black/brown) and phaeomelanin(red/yellow) pigment synthesis within the mammalian melanocytes. Mutations within the gene encoding MC1R have been shown to explain coat colour variations within several species including cattle. This study was performed to develop the identification technique of Hanwoo meat using MC1R gene associated with the coat colors of cattle. Alleles of the MC1R locus were detected by PCR-RFLP analysis and genotype frequency and DNA sequences of MC1R gene were compared among cattle breeds. Genomic DNA was extracted from meat or blood samples of five breeds including Hanwoo(n=200), Holstein(n=100), Angus(n=20), Hereford(n=20) and Charolais(n=20). The MC1R gene was used to amplify 739bp and 173bp of the bovine E-locus corresponding to positions 228-966 and 318-490, respectively, using the two specific primers. The amplified products were digested with Bse118 I or Msp I and Aci I enzymes, and DNA fragments were separated by gel electrophoresis for RFLP genotype analysis. Six genotypes, E^D/E^D E^D/E^+, E^D/e, E^+/E^+,E^+/e and e/e, controlled by three alleles E^D, E^+ and e were observed in MC1 locus. When the amplified DNA product(739bp) was digested with Bse118 I enzyme, Hanwoo meat showed a single band of 739bp, whereas two fragments of 531bp and 208bp were detected in Holstein meat and Angus breed, respectively. Also, in the RFLP patterns using Msp I enzyme, Hanwoo meat produced two fragments of 535bp and 174bp, while three fragments of 328bp, 207bp and 174bp were observed in Holstein meat and Angus breeds, respectively. Therefore, breed-specific RFLP markers showing distinct differences between these breeds were found by PCR-RFLP analysis. When the amplified DNA product(173bp) was digested with Aci I enzyme to classify subtype of E allele, the E^D allele produced three fragments of 97, 68 and 8bp, while the E^+ and d alleles produced two fragments of 173 and 8bp according to the Aci I recognition sequence. Among the six genotypes, two genotypes of E^+/e and e/e were observed in Hanwoo and their frequencies were 0.07 and 0.93, respectively. However, the E^D/ED and E^D/e genotypes were present in Holstein and E^D/E^D, E^D/E^+ and E^D/e genotypes in Angus breeds. Therefore, the E^+/e and e/e genotypes observed in Hanwoo and E^D/E^D, E^D/E^+ and E^D/e genotypes detected only in Holstein and Angus breeds may be useful as breed-specific DNA markers for distinguishing between Hanwoo meat and Holstein and Angus meats. When comparing MC1R sequences among Hanwoo, Holstein and Angus, a Gly → Val amino acid change due to a single base(G) deletion at colon 104 was found in Hanwoo. Consequently, breed specific RFLP genotypes of MC1R gene related to bovine coat colors could be used as DNA markers for identification of Hanwoo meat from Holstein and Angus meats.

      • KCI등재

        Effects of Steroid Hormone in Avian Follicles

        R.E. Caicedo Rivas,M. Paz-Calderon Nieto,M. Kamiyoshi 아세아·태평양축산학회 2016 Animal Bioscience Vol.29 No.4

        The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E2) on the production of progesterone (P4) by granulosa cells, and of the E2 on the production of P4 and T by theca internal cells. In the first experiment, granulosa cells isolated from the largest (F1) and third largest (F3) preovulatory follicle were incubated for 4 h in short-term culture system, P4 production by granulosa cells of both F1 and F3 was increased in a dose-dependent manner by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), but not T or E2. In the second experiment, F1 and F3 granulosa cells cultured for 48 h in the developed monolayer culture system were recultured for an additional 48 h with increasing doses of various physiological active substances existing in the ovary, including T and E2. Basal P4 production for 48 h during 48 to 96 h of the cultured was about nine fold greater by F1 granulosa cells than by F3 granulosa cells. In substances examined oLH, chicken vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (cVIP) and T, but not E2, stimulated in a dosedependent manner P4 production in both F1 and F3 granulosa cells. In addition, when the time course of P4 production by F1 granulosa cells in response to oLH, cVIP, T and E2 was examined for 48 h during 48 to 96 h of culture, although E2 had no effect on P4 production by granulosa cells of F1 during the period from 48 to 96 h of culture, P4 production with oLH was found to be increased at 4 h of the culture, with a maximal 9.14 fold level at 6 h. By contrast, P4 production with cVIP and T increased significantly (p<0.05) from 8 and 12 h of the culture, respectively, with maximal 6.50 fold response at 12 h and 6, 48 fold responses at 36 h. Furthermore, when F1 granulosa cells were precultured with E2 for various times before 4 h culture with oLH at 96 h of culture, the increase in P4 production in response to oLH with a dose-related manner was only found at a pretreatment time of more than 12 h. In the third experiment, theca internal cells of F1, F2 and the largest third to fifth preovulatory follicles (F3-5) were incubated for 4 h in short-term culture system with increasing doses of E2. The production of P4 and T by theca internal cells were increased with the addition of E2 of 10–6 M. These increases were greater in smaller follicles. These results indicate that, in granulosa cells of the hen, T may have a direct stimulatory action in the long term on P4 production, and on E2 in long-term action which may enhance the sensitivity to LH for P4 production, and thus, in theca internal cells, E2 in short term action may stimulate the production of P4 and T.

      • Identification of antigenic Edwardsiella tarda surface proteins and their role in pathogenesis

        Yu, J.E.,Yoo, A.Y.,Choi, K.H.,Cha, J.,Kwak, I.,Kang, H.Y. Academic Press 2013 Fish & shellfish immunology Vol.34 No.2

        Edwardsiella tarda causes an infectious fish disease called edwardsiellosis. Several outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are associated with virulence factors and are attractive as vaccine candidates. In this study, 4 immuno-reactive OMPs of E. tarda were detected using anti-sera from flounder infected with E. tarda. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analyses, 2 of the 4 OMPs were identified as OmpA and murein lipoprotein (Lpp), which are highly conserved surface proteins in gram-negative bacteria. For further characterization of these surface proteins, we generated ompA- and lpp-inactivated mutants by insertion of a kanamycin cassette in the corresponding genes, and named these mutants E. tarda CK99 and CK164, respectively. As expected, immuno-reactive OmpA and Lpp proteins were absent in E. tarda CK99 and CK164, respectively, confirming that OmpA and Lpp are antigenic surface proteins. Interestingly, the LD<SUB>50</SUB> value of E. tarda CK164 in fish (2.0 x 10<SUP>8</SUP> colony-forming unit [CFU]/fish) was greater than that of the parental strain (3.0 x 10<SUP>7</SUP> CFU/fish). The LD<SUB>50</SUB> of E. tarda CK99 did not differ from that of its parental strain. After administering attenuated E. tarda CK164 to fish, we monitored the E. tarda-specific immune response profile. We observed that the E. tarda-specific serum IgM titer increased in a time-dependent manner, and was much higher than the value observed after the administration of a heat-killed E. tarda control. Moreover, fish vaccinated with E. tarda CK164 were 100% protected when challenged by CK41, a pathogenic strain. Our results suggest that E. tarda CK164 can potentially be used for developing an effective live attenuated vaccine for edwardsiellosis that can be applied in the aquaculture industry.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        The effect of flavor content in e-liquids on e-cigarette emissions of carbonyl compounds

        Qu, Yao,Kim, Ki-Hyun,Szulejko, Jan E. Elsevier 2018 Environmental research Vol.166 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P> <B>T</B>he effect of flavors on carbonyl compound (CC) emission factors (EF) from electronic cigarettes (ECs) vaping was investigated at the default vaping (voltage) setting in all experiments using a total of 21 lab-made e-liquid samples (five different types of retail flavorant bases: beverage/dessert/fruit/mint/tobacco). Each flavorant base was added to a separate unflavored base composed of a 1:1 mixture of propylene glycol/vegetable glycerol (PG/VG) at four levels (5/10/30/50% (v/v)). The e-liquid CC levels increased linearly with flavorant base content, 1.3–10.5 times (R<SUP>2</SUP>: 0.762–0.999). The vaping CC EFs increased linearly with flavorant base content (if ≥ 10%) from 1.0 to 92 times (R<SUP>2</SUP>: 0.431–0.998). For flavorant base content of 0%, 5%, and 10%, the EFs ranged from undetected to 0.11 μg puff<SUP>−1</SUP> (acetone). The 40-year cancer risk due to formaldehyde (70 kg EC user inhaling 5% flavorant base content e-liquid: 120 puffs day<SUP>−1</SUP>) is estimated to be 2.0E-06 (highest) compared to 1.0E-06 for the 1:1 PG:VG base. Most formaldehyde vaped from the fruit flavored e-liquid was the flavorant base. The CC concentrations in EC liquids (before vaping) were approximately linear with e-liquid flavorant base content. Retail e-liquid product information labels should be guided to provide a complete list of all ingredients, their concentrations, and carbonyl compound EFs.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or ECs) are designed to deliver nicotine to a smoker. </LI> <LI> The flavorings in e-liquids were considered safe but raised concerns due to potential toxicity. </LI> <LI> In this study, we investigated the effects of flavor content on CC emissions from EC vaping. </LI> <LI> The CC amounts (before/during vaping) was estimated from the flavor content in the e-liquid. </LI> <LI> The effects of flavor content in e-liquids on vaping CC emissions warrant attention. </LI> </UL> </P>

      • Interpretation of cryogenic-temperature Charpy fracture initiation and propagation energies by microstructural evolution occurring during dynamic compressive test of austenitic Fe-(0.4,1.0)C-18Mn steels

        Kim, H.,Park, J.,Jung, J.E.,Sohn, S.S.,Lee, S. Elsevier Sequoia 2015 Materials science & engineering. properties, micro Vol.641 No.-

        In the present study, Charpy impact energy (E<SUB>T</SUB>) composed of fracture initiation energy (E<SUB>I</SUB>) and propagation energy (E<SUB>P</SUB>) of austenitic Fe-(0.4,1.0)C-18Mn steels was evaluated in the temperature range from room to cryogenic temperatures by an instrumented Charpy impact tester, and was interpreted by microstructural evolution of dynamically compressed specimens. In the 1.0C-18Mn steel, the E<SUB>I</SUB> and E<SUB>P</SUB> decreased slightly with decreasing temperature, but the E<SUB>P</SUB>/E<SUB>T</SUB> ratio was kept to be about 0.5. In the 0.4C-18Mn steel, the E<SUB>I</SUB> remained almost constant or slightly decreased with decreasing temperature, while the E<SUB>P</SUB>/E<SUB>T</SUB> ratio steadily decreased, thereby leading to the lower (about 30%) cryogenic-temperature E<SUB>T</SUB> than that of the 1.0C-18Mn steel. Under the dynamic compressive loading, a considerable number of ε-martensites were formed in the 0.4C-18Mn steel, whereas they were not found in the 1.0C-18Mn steel, and their volume fractions increased steadily with decreasing temperature. This γ→ε-martensite transformation was attributed to the decrease in stacking fault energy, and resulted in the very low E<SUB>P</SUB> and resultant E<SUB>T</SUB>.

      • KCI등재

        전자담배 담론 연구

        Study of the Discourse of E-cigarette 한국소비문화학회 2016 소비문화연구 Vol.19 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        최근 들어 우리나라에서 전자담배에 대한 관심과 수요가 증가하고 있다. 이 연구는 전자담배에 대한 기사와 광고 그리고 전자담배 소비자들과의 일대일 심층면접에 대한 분석을 통해 전자담배 소비자들의 전자담배나 전자담배 소비에 대한 담론을 집중적으로 파악하였다. 이것은 우리 사회의 담배 및 흡연, 금연에 대한 담론과 전자담배의 담론을 비교하고, 전자담배 사용자의 소비 경험과의 상호 환류 과정을 살펴보는 과정이기도 하다. 본 연구를 위해 우리나라의 금연 정책 중 전자담배의 도입시점 이후의 전자담배에 대한 규제 정책의 변화에 대해 살펴봄과 동시에 전자담배와 관련된 담론의 형성을 파악하기 위하여 2007년부터 2015년까지의 전자담배와 관련된 신문기사 172건, 동일 기간에 노출된 광고물 56건을 분석하였다. 아울러 전자담배를 이용하는 소비자들의 소비행위 및 소비경험을 파악하기 위해 2015년 3월부터 4월까지, 약 두 달의 기간에 걸쳐 전자담배를 사용하는 성인 남녀 15인과 심층면접을 실시하였다. 전자담배를 둘러싼 담론 경쟁의 가장 큰 특징은 매우 불완전한 정보에 기초하여 담론 경쟁이 이루어지고 있다는 점이다. 전자담배의 안전성과 금연 효과, 그 어느 측면에서도 근거가 부족한 상황에서 ‘전자담배는 무해한 담배’라는 전자담배 제조업자들의 담론과 ‘전자담배도 일반 담배와 동일하게 유해하다’는 규제 당국의 담론이 각각 광고와 법제도를 통해 공중에게 강요되는 구조를 띠고 있다. 그리고 전자담배를 둘러싼 담론의 경쟁에서 규제당국은 학술적·사회적 논의를 형성하고 확산시켜 나가기보다는 ‘유권해석’ 및 ‘국제 기구의 입장’ 같은 근거들을 내세우는 권위적인 방식으로 경쟁에 임했다. 반면 전자담배 제조·판매업자들은 규제 당국의 담론이나 규제 조치에 대해서는 순응하거나 침묵을 지키면서 소비자에게만 광고를 통해 전자담배 무해 담론을 유포하는 방식으로 담론 경쟁에 임하였다. 전자담배 사용자 문화의 특수성에서 기인하는 담론을 포함하여 일반담배의 담론 경쟁과 구별되는 이러한 전자담배의 담론 경쟁의 특징은 새로운 대항 담론의 필요성을 일깨운다. 이 연구를 통한 전자담배에 대한 소비자 담론의 이해는 현재 진행 중인 전자담배 담론의 경쟁을 바라보는 객관적인 잣대를 제공할 것이며 전자담배에 대한 정책을 수립, 집행하는데 많은 도움을 줄 것이다. E-cigarette has drawn a lot of public attention in Korea. Demand on it also increased rapidly. This study analyzed the structure of discourse competition about E-cigarette and observed the influence of E-cigarette discourses on consumers’ experiences. E-cigarette was introduced to Korea in 2007. This study analyzed contents of 172 news articles and 56 print ads between 2007 and 2015. It shows how discourses and regulations has been changed concerning E-cigarette. Additionally in-depth interviews for 15 E-cigarette users was conducted in order to understand their identities and practices as E-cigarette consumer. The discourse competition about E-cigarette was based on imperfect information. There were not any tentative conclusion regarding safety and the effect of smoking cessation. In such situation, marketers spread the discourse of ‘harmless cigarette’ through commercial ads, while regulatory autorities spread the discourse of ‘as harmful as cigarette’ through laws and regulatory policies. However, neither regulatory authorities nor marketers participate interactive discourse competition. Regulatory authorities have introduced regulations based on authoritative interpretations and positions of international organizations. Marketers complied to regulations and did not refute the discourse of regulatory authorities, but continued to position E-cigarette as harmless in their ads. Imperfect competition of discourse lead to unstable identity of E-cigarette consumers. A new discourse specific to E-cigarette was needed for regulation. Understanding consumer discourse of E-cigarette contribute objective evaluations of effectiveness of regulatory discourse and helps to design and implement more effective policies.

      • KCI등재

        The Bacterial Surface Expression of SARS Viral Epitope using Salmonella typhi Cytolysin A

        Hong Hua Piao,Jihyoun Seong,Man Ki Song,Youn Uck Kim,Dong-Jun Shin,Hyon E Choy,Yeongjin Hong 대한미생물학회 2009 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.39 No.2

        The cytolysin A (ClyA) is a 34 kDa pore-forming cytotoxic protein and expressed by some enteric bacteria including Salmonella typhi. This toxin is transported on the bacterial surface and secreted without posttranslational modification. Using the surface display of ClyA, the expression vectors for 193-aa immunogenic antigen of spike protein (termed S1E) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were constructed. The vectors carried a gene encoding S. typhi ClyA conjugated to S1E at the C terminus (termed ClyA-S1E) and asd gene in pGEM-T and pBR322, named pGApLCS1E and pBApLCS1E, respectively. An asd-mutated E. coli transformed with these vectors could grow without diaminopimelic acid (DAP), indicating that they were stably maintained in such mutants. ClyA-S1E recombinant proteins from these vectors were expressed on the surface of the attenuated S. typhimurium deficient of global virulence gene regulator, ppGpp. However, they did not show the hemolytic activity on the blood agar plate and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. To examine whether bacteria expressing ClyA-S1E induced the immune response against S1E, S. typhimurium deficient of ppGpp and Asd was transformed with these vectors and orally immunized in mice. In the western blotting against GST-conjugated S1E using the immunized mouse sera, it was shown that the significant band was detected in the mouse serum by the bacteria transformed with pGApLCS1E but not with pBApLCS1E. It indicates that the immune response producing antibody was dependent on the expression level of ClyA-S1E. Therefore, ClyA delivery system can be used for SARS vaccine development.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        The Bacterial Surface Expression of SARS Viral Epitope using Salmonella typhi Cytolysin A

        Piao, Hong-Hua,Seong, Ji-Hyoun,Song, Man-Ki,Kim, Youn-Uck,Shin, Dong-Jun,Choy, Hyon-E,Hong, Yeong-Jin The Korean Society for Microbiology 2009 Journal of Bacteriology and Virology Vol.39 No.2

        The cytolysin A (ClyA) is a 34 kDa pore-forming cytotoxic protein and expressed by some enteric bacteria including Salmonella typhi. This toxin is transported on the bacterial surface and secreted without posttranslational modification. Using the surface display of ClyA, the expression vectors for 193-aa immunogenic antigen of spike protein (termed S1E) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were constructed. The vectors carried a gene encoding S. typhi ClyA conjugated to S1E at the C terminus (termed ClyA-S1E) and asd gene in pGEM-T and pBR322, named pGApLCS1E and pBApLCS1E, respectively. An asd-mutated E. coli transformed with these vectors could grow without diaminopimelic acid (DAP), indicating that they were stably maintained in such mutants. ClyA-S1E recombinant proteins from these vectors were expressed on the surface of the attenuated S. typhimurium deficient of global virulence gene regulator, ppGpp. However, they did not show the hemolytic activity on the blood agar plate and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. To examine whether bacteria expressing ClyA-S1E induced the immune response against S1E, S. typhimurium deficient of ppGpp and Asd was transformed with these vectors and orally immunized in mice. In the western blotting against GST-conjugated S1E using the immunized mouse sera, it was shown that the significant band was detected in the mouse serum by the bacteria transformed with pGApLCS1E but not with pBApLCS1E. It indicates that the immune response producing antibody was dependent on the expression level of ClyA-S1E. Therefore, ClyA delivery system can be used for SARS vaccine development.

      • KCI등재

        An Analyze of the Development Experiences and Status quo of Electronic Commerce in China

        Pan Jin’e 국제e-비즈니스학회 2007 e-비즈니스 연구 Vol.1 No.1

        Electronic Commerce appears late in China while progresses rapidly. This paper firstly introduces the developmental stages of E-commerce in China, and then draws out a whole picture of the status in quo. Basing on the analyses of the disadvantages and advantages, this paper predicts future of E-commerce in China as follow: A new period for deep developing E-commerce in China is coming, which will be very potential and promising.

      • KCI등재

        Impact of thermal and chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of E110 and E110G cladding tubes

        M. Kir aly,Z. Hozer,M. Horvath,T. Novotny,E. Perez-Fero,N. Ver 한국원자력학회 2019 Nuclear Engineering and Technology Vol.51 No.2

        The mechanical and corrosion behavior of the Russian zirconium fuel cladding alloy E110, predominantlyused in VVERs, has been investigated for many decades. The recent commercialization of a new, optimizedE110 alloy, produced on a sponge zirconium basis, gave the opportunity to compare the mechanicalproperties of the old and the new E110 fuel claddings. Axial and tangential tensile test experiments were performed with samples from both claddings in theMTA EK. Due to the anisotropy of the cladding tubes, the axial tensile strength was 10e15% higher thanthe tangential (measured by ring tensile tests). The tensile strength of the new E110G alloy was 11%higher than that of the E110 cladding at room temperature. Some samples underwent chemical treatment e slight oxidation in steam or hydrogenation e or heattreatment e in argon atmosphere at temperatures between 600 and 1000 C. The heat treatment duringthe oxidation had more significant effect on the tensile strength of the claddings than the oxidation itself,which lowered the tensile strength as the thickness of the metal decreased. The hydrogenation of thecladding samples slightly lowered the tensile strength and the samples but they remained ductile even atroom temperature.

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