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1858년 2월 14세의 Bernadette Soubirous 가 프랑스 피레네 산맥의 루르드 (Lourdes) 작은 마을 외곽 동굴에서 이후에 동정녀 마리아로 판명된 환영을 본 이래로 160년 이상 그녀와 마을은 세계적인 현상이 되었다. 그러나 소녀와 마을은 대중의 상상력과 불가분의 관계가 있지만, 그들의 매력의 뿌리는 미묘하게 다르다. 매년 약 600 만 명의 방문객이 루르드로 몰려가고 있으며, 그중 많은 사람들이 세인트 버나데트(St. Bernadette, 그녀는 1933 년이래로 알려져 있다)가 지적한 그 샘과 관련된 기적적인 치료법 중 하나를 바라고 있다. 순례 여행은 모든 종교의 의사 소통자들을 끌어모을 뿐만 아니라 단순한 호기심을 불러일으킨다. 그러나 사람들이 어떤 이유로든 전통적으로 이해되는 것처럼 로마 카톨릭 교회는 종교적 신앙의 기능으로 루르드 현상을 조심스럽게 틀어 놓았다. 그러나 버나데트의 매력은 에밀 졸라와 소설가 프란츠 베르펠, 시인 레너드 코헨을 포함한 유대인 예술 유형과 같은 반 종교적 과학 사도들에게도 영향을 미쳤다. 그 매력은 매우 개인적인 것으로 사춘기의 헌신과 상식에 대한 그녀의 구체화에서 비롯되었다. 쟌다르크와 많은 것이 비교되며 열정적인 처녀이다. 그외에도 Bernadette는 때때로 루르드에서 치료받은 육체적 병을 넘어서 치유의 상징으로 발전하여 슬픔과 낙담한 영과 연결되었다. 그녀는 치료보다는 평온의 근원이 되었다. Over the more than sixteen decades since fourteen-year-old Bernadette Soubirous first saw, in February 1858, an apparition later identified as the Virgin Mary in a grotto outside her small village of Lourdes in the Pyrenees mountains of France, she and Lourdes have become global phenomena. However, while the girl and the village have become inextricably intertwined in the popular imagination, the roots of their appeal are subtly different. Each year some six million visitors flock to Lourdes, many of them hoping for one of the miraculous cures associated with a grotto spring pointed out by St. Bernadette (as she has been known since 1933). The pilgrimages attract communicants of all religions as well as the simply curious, but for whatever reasons people choose to come, the Roman Catholic Church has carefully framed the Lourdes phenomenon as a function of religious faith as traditionally understood. The appeal of Bernadette, though, has been broader, touching even anti-religious apostles of science like É mile Zola as well as Jewish artistic types including the novelist Franz Werfel and the poet Leonard Cohen. The attraction has been highly personal, deriving from her embodiment of adolescent commitment and common sense – a passionate virgin compared by many to Joan of Arc. Beyond that Bernadette has evolved as a symbol of healing reaching beyond the bodily ills sometimes healed at Lourdes to connect with grieving and despondent spirits. She has become a source of comfort rather than of cure.
Admirers of ASEAN are impressed with the fact that it continues to exist and that an outright war has never broken out between its members. Also often praised is the value to the region of promoting cooperation through the consensual process known as the ‘ASEANWay'. If ASEAN is a talk shop, these observers say, talking is at least better than fighting. ASEAN's increasingly numerous and vocal critics reply that by valuing process more than product, consensus over accomplishment, the organization is failing to respond to urgent real-world challenges in Asia. Not least among such challenges is Chinese expansion in the South China Sea (SCS) and the stated intention of incoming US president Donald Trump to pull his country out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Only four ASEAN members have claims in the SCS and only four are in the TPP, but the sea's and the treaty's futures matter for the rest of the region as well. The fact of Chinese advancement and the risk of American disengagement are endangering the autonomy and relevance of ASEAN, not to mention the repercussions of Sino-American escalation. Already weakened by internal dissensus, the group's ability to negotiate as a group with China on maritime security has been blocked by Beijing's insistence on bilateral talks. Chinese material largesse has coopted Cambodia into vetoing any ASEAN agreement to restrain, moderate, or even question China's designs on the heartwater of Southeast Asia. The ASEAN Way is being used against ASEAN itself. Heightened uncertainty as to America's future role in and commitment to the region further heightens security concern. In its 50th anniversary year, Southeast Asians would do well to think outside the increasingly marginalised, internally divided, and procedurally restricted box that ASEAN has become. Three ideas already in circulation illustrate the kind of creativity that ASEAN will need if it is to sustain its acknowledged historical success in fashioning an independent political and economic identity for Southeast Asia.
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Washington Irving arguably helped create nineteenth-century orientalism in the contrasts between Christian and Islamic cultures in The Alhambra (1832), as well as his historical studies of the fall of Grenade to Ferdinand and Isabella and of the fall of Spain to its Moslem conquerors seven centuries earlier After his return to the United States from Europe just as The Alhambra was being published, Irving seemed to import orientalism to the prairie in comparisons between American Indians and Arabs during the journey to the Indian Territory later recounted in A Tour on the Prairies (1835) Yet Irving's brand of orientalism shared little with the concept as redefined by Edward Said The emphasis on power in Said is replaced in Irving's works by a network of picturesque associations generated by his conception of Romanticism Although Irving did occasionally discriminate between different levels of the picturesque in ways that valued the true primitive above the partially Westernized, the broad thrust of his writings on foreign Irving sought through a series of metaphors to link them in a web of related impressions that could deepen, broaden, and enliven the consciousness of readers otherwise ensnared within the restricted intellectual and emotional compass of the commercial society of early nineteenth century America and Western Europe
Recent mobile technology enables various types of mobile applications and payments and the market for those payments are still in the infant stage in Korea. In this early stage of new market development, the success of mobile application services highly depends on inducing new consumers and fostering their loyalty on the platform. This study adopts a Dual-Factor Model framework, with a dedication-constraint based model, in consideration of relevant factors that lead to consumers' loyalty. To this end, this study collected survey data from 549 experienced users of mobile applications and payments and empirically tested the research model. The results indicate that consumers' loyalty is highly determined by their satisfaction and their existing usage habit. Switching cost also showed a marginal effect on consumers' loyalty. In addition, both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations - perceived value and perceived enjoyment – were found to be direct influences on the satisfaction construct. With this outcome in mind, this study reveals and suggests that future theoretical and practical exploration should focus on pursuing factors that stimulate both consumer satisfaction and habit to win and foster consumers' loyalty in the usage of mobile applications.