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Background: BK virus (BKV) has emerged as an important cause of graft dysfunction and failure in renal transplant recipients. Reduction of immunosuppressive therapy is accepted as the primary strategy for management of BKV infection in renal transplant recipients, a strategy which frequently results in graft dysfunction and failure. Herein, a single center experience of BKV infection in renal transplant recipients is presented with an emphasis on the management of BKV infection. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 107 renal transplant recipients who were treated at the outpatient clinic in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from April 2003 to April 2011. The effects of the modification of immunosuppression on the replication of BKV and graft outcome were analyzed. Results: Of a total of 35 patient evaluated for BKV infection, 20 tested positive in at least one BK virus test. Decoy cells in urine were detected in 13 of the 20 patients. Of these patients, 7 developed BKV nephropathy. Four out of seven of the BKV nephropathy patients were diagnosed with biopsy, and the other three were diagnosed based on a high titer of BKV replication detected in plasma samples. Despite the reduction in immunosuppression and use of leflunomide in the seven BKV nephropathy patients, two patients suffered deterioration of renal function and one patient lost the graft with progressive renal dysfunction. Conclusions: BK virus nephropathy was not an uncommon disease and was a major cause of graft dysfunction or loss. Appropriate modification of immunosuppressive therapy, early in the course of BK nephropathy or before the occurrence of massive replication of BKV, is essential for the protection of renal allografts.
This paper presents the design optimization technique on the dynamic vibration absorber for reducing the fundamental bending vibration of driveline. The response surface method using the central composite design is utilized to obtain the response surface model that describes the approximate objective function. The optimum design to determine the design parameters is performed by using the response surface model obtained from the design of experiments. This study shows that the peak value of the vertical acceleration of driveline is reduced effectively.
The purpose of this study is to examine the clothing component information and attributes as the control parameters for the 3D modeling process of the biomorphic clothing sculpture using a parametric methodology. The 3D modeling parameters of biomorphic clothing sculpture were identified as exaggerated silhouette, surface texture, and digital color. The types of exaggerated silhouettes were shoulder and hip exaggeration, shoulder exaggeration, hip exaggeration, vertical exaggeration, and horizontal exaggeration. The types of surface texture were embossed, lacy, furry, and complex textures. The types of digital color were chrome, blur, blend, and acid colors. The characteristics of morphological representation due to the attributes of these control variables were identified as morphological variation, organic morphology, organizational morphology, and realistic morphology. As a result, it was found that the parameter attributes were applied to the biomorphic clothing sculpture parametric design process and developed into various shapes.