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How is housing produced and then distributed to people of different income, race, and class? There are two alternative perspectives. The first looks at the distribution or allocation of housing as a process of exchange operating primarily through the mechanism of price. The second looks to the role of government in producing and allocating housing based on primarily social needs. Under the new liberalism way of housing policy since the early 1980s, state intervention was portrayed as a bad thing and the unregulated operation of markets a good thing. Whatever its ideology or form of government, each society must have some mechanism for allocating investment to housing and then for allocating housing to its population. The aim of this paper is to review of alternative types of housing systems and degrees of government involvement. The state and the market were projected as antagonistic poles. Nevertheless, the important point to remember is that there are no pure models of either state-controlled or market-based systems. Korea's housing polices reflect all combination from centrally-planned housing programs to those more new liberalism approaches based on the private market.
Effective material properties of active fiber composites with interdigitated electrodes are derived as a function of the fiber volume fraction. For the purpose of applying the rule of mixture, three unit cell models are introduced; each for the deformation and stress continuities in the out of plane and in-plane directions, and the continuity of the electrical displacement in the longitudinal direction. Derived effective material properties are compared with the results by the finite element method; good agreements are observed between them. As an application, the electromechanical behavior of the angle ply laminates with the active fiber layers bonded on the top and bottom surfaces are investigated; the angle of piezoelectric fiber to maximize the twisting curvature is obtained using the present model.
Korea has become a member country of the OECD. In OECD member countries, much of housing policy was seen an extension of the welfare state. Most OECD member countries are experiencing significant problems resulting demographic change and the emergence of the housing poverty in urban areas. As a member country of the OECD, we need to know about the housing welfare policies of the OECD countries. The purpose of this paper is twofold:first, to review the housing welfare policies of some OECD member-countries, and second, to examine the Korean government's housing policies for the housing poverty group.
A method is proposed to predict the deformed shape of the structure subjected to the unknown external loads using the signal from the piezoceramic sensors. Such a shape estimation is based on the linear relationship between the deformation of structure and the signal from sensor, which is calculated using finite element method. The deformed shape is, then calculated using the linear matrix and the signals from the piezoceramic sensors attached to the structures. For the purpose, a structural analysis program is developed using a multi-layerd finite element of 8 nodes with 3 displacement and one voltage degrees of freedom at each node. The multiple layers with the different material properties can be layered within the element. The incompatible mode with the element is found to be crucial to catch the bending behavior accurately. The accuracy of the program is, then, verified by being compared with the experimental results performed by Crawley. The proposed shape estimation method is also verified for the different loads and sensor size. It is shown that the results of shape estimation method using the linear matrix well predicts the deflections compared with those of finite element method.
Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare costsavings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommendedto reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda.