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      • KCI등재

        Image Contrast Enhancement by Illumination Change Detection

        Bayanmunkh Odgerel(바잉뭉흐 어드게렐),Chang Hoon Lee(이창훈) 한국지능시스템학회 2014 한국지능시스템학회논문지 Vol.24 No.2

        영상처리를 통한 이동 물체 인식과 화질 개선 등의 연구에서 조명 변화가 성능에 큰 영향을 미치기 때문에 조명 변환에 대한 대응은 컴퓨터 비전 응용 분야에서의 중요한 관심사 중 하나이다. 조명 변화를 감지할 수 있게 되면 변화가 있는 시점에서부터 적절한 개선 알고리즘을 적용함으로써 인식률 향상 및 화질 개선 효과를 증대시킬 수 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 급격한 조명 변화를 감지함에 있어 실시간성을 얻기 위하여 지역 정보를 이요하고 퍼지 논리를 도입하여 이를 효과적으로 감지하는 방법을 제안한다. 급격한 조명 변화를 감지하는 효과적인 방법으로 모서리 영역과 가운데 영역에 대한 각각의 히스토그램의 평균과 편차, 그리고 변화 추이를 반영하기 위하여 이전 프레임의 각 영역에 대한 히스토그램의 평균과 편차와의 변화량을 입력으로 급격한 조명 변화가 있을 때 입력 값의 변화 패턴을 퍼지 규칙으로 만들어 조명 변화를 감지 하도록 하였다. 또한 움직이는 물체에 가려 발생하는 변화와 구별하기 위하여 전체 영역에 대한 평균과 편차 변화량을 도입하여 논리적으로 추론하여 차이를 구별할 수 있도록 하였고 점진적으로 조명이 변화하는 것을 감지할 수 있도록 하였다. 다양한 테스트 데이터에 대해 객관적인 정확도 측정 기법을 이용하여 민감도와 특이도를 계산하여 제안한 방법의 효용성을 보였다. 적응형 뉴로-퍼지 추론시스템을 도입하여 대비제한 적응 히스토그램 평활화 (CLAHE)의 매개 변수를 자동으로 선택할 수 있는 방법을 제안하여 급격한 조명의 변화를 감지한 결과를 바탕으로 화질을 개선할 수 있음을 보였다. There are many image processing based algorithms and applications that fail when illumination change occurs. Therefore, the illumination change has to be detected then the illumination change occurred images need to be enhanced in order to keep the appropriate algorithm processing in a reality. In this paper, a new method for detecting illumination changes efficiently in a real time by using local region information and fuzzy logic is introduced. The effective way for detecting illumination changes in lighting area and the edge of the area was selected to analyze the mean and variance of the histogram of each area and to reflect the changing trends on previous frame’s mean and variance for each area of the histogram. The ways are used as an input. The changes of mean and variance make different patterns when illumination change occurs. Fuzzy rules were defined based on the patterns of the input for detecting illumination changes. Proposed method was tested with different dataset through the evaluation metrics; in particular, the specificity, recall and precision showed high rates. An automatic parameter selection method was proposed for contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization method by using entropy of image through adaptive neural fuzzy inference system. The results showed that the contrast of images could be enhanced. The proposed algorithm is robust to detect global illumination change ,and it is also computationally efficient in real applications.

      • DITI를 이용한 교통사고 환자의 한의학적인 치료평가

        이창훈,조정훈,장준복,이경섭,황재호,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Cho, Jung-Hoon,Jang, Jun-Bock,Lee, Kyung-Sub,Hwang, Jae-Ho 대한한방체열의학회 2005 대한한방체열의학회지 Vol.4 No.1

        Purpose: This study is to assess oriental medicine treatment for cervical sprain from traffic accident using DITI. Methods: 21 patients who hospitalized in the Kangnam Korean Hospital, KyungHee Univ. from March 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005 diagnosed as cervical sprain from traffic accident were participated in this study. They received acupuncture treatment, Herb medicine, ICT-Tx, and Nega-Tx during the admission period. We checked temperature of neck(A area) and whole back(B area) and ${\Delta}T$ were calculated at admission date(pre-Tx group, ${\Delta}T1$) and discharged date(post-Tx group, ${\Delta}T2$). Results: ${\Delta}T2$ decreased significantly in post-Tx group compared with ${\Delta}T1$ in pre-Tx group Conclusion: Oriental medicine treatment can be the effective way to treat cervical sprain from traffic accident. and DITI can be useful instrument to assess oriental medicine treatments.

      • KCI등재

        단치소요산(丹梔逍遙散) 약침(藥鍼)의 소염(消炎), 진통(鎭痛) 및 해열(解熱) 효과(效果)에 대한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究)

        이창훈 ( Chang-hoon Lee ),장준복 ( Jun-bock Jang ),이경섭 ( Kyung-sub Lee ),송병기 ( Byoung-key Song ) 대한한방부인과학회 2001 大韓韓方婦人科學會誌 Vol.14 No.3

        Objective - Experimental trials on Danchisoyo-San solution were made before. This trial is to examine the effects of Danchisoyo-San Aqua-acupuncture as an analgesic, antiphlogistic and antifebrile. Methods - Danchisoyo-San was, through evaporation, made into extract. The extract concentration was 210mg/kg, calculated in terms of raw material, and diluted with saline solution when necessary. Extract was injected into Gi-Mun, LR14. This trial involved for groups: a control group injected with saline solution, Sample-A group and Sample-B group with extract of 105mg/kg and 210mg/kg concentration, respectively, and the fourth group with comparative treatment. The effects as an analgesic, antiphlogistic and antifebrile were examined. Conclusion 1) In acute edema, the Danchisoyo-San Aqua-acupuncture groups showed reliable results in inhibiting Carrageenin-caused edema. 2) In histamine-caused vascular permeability increase, only the group of Danchisoyo-San extract of 210mg/kg showed reliable results in inhibiting the increase. 3) Analgesic effects of Danchisoyo-San Aqua-acupuncture, through writhing syndrome induced acetic acid and Hat Plate Analgesia Meter, proved to be reliable both in Sample-A and Sanple-B group and the effects especially through writhing syndrome induced acetic acid , proved to be more reliable in the latter group than in the former 4) Regarding the effects of Pentobarbital-Na on lengthening of sleeping hours and voluntary mobility, only the Danchisoyo-San Aqua-acupuncture groups showed reliable changes. 5) In body temperature, both Sample-A and Sample-B group showed no reliable change.

      • 칠제향부환(七製香附丸)이 원발성(原發性) 월경통(月經痛) 환자(患者)의 복부(腹部) 온도(溫度)에 미치는 영향(影響)

        이창훈,조정훈,장준복,이경섭,윤영진,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Cho, Jung-Hoon,Jang, Jun-Bock,Lee, Kyung-Sub,Yoon, Young-Jin 대한한방체열의학회 2005 대한한방체열의학회지 Vol.4 No.1

        Purpose: We intended to observe the relations between Chiljehyangbuhwan and abdominal temperature according to primary dysmenorrhea severity. Methods: We selected the 100 primary dysmenorrhea patients by the screening tests (first screening test-inquiry, second screening test-clinical test, additionally WHR (Waist-to-Hip ratio) by Inbody 2.0). By the fixed blocked randomization and double blind method, Chiljehyangbuhwan or placebo was administered for 1 menstration period. Finally, 69 patients remainded. Before and after administration, we measured 4 points abdominal temperature (Chon-jung(CV17), Chung-wan(CV12), Kwan-won(CV4), Chung-guk(CV3)) by DITI (DOREX Inc., USA). And then we checked the difference of temperature $({\Delta}T)$ between CV17 and CV12 / CV17 and CV4 / CV17 and CV3 / CV12 and CV4 / CV12 and CV3. After that, we compared ${\Delta}T$ with primary dysmenorrhea severity evaluated by VRS (verbal rating scale) and MVRS (multidimensional verbal rating scale). In dysmenorrhea severity, we standardized scale score and 3-group-severity by score (mild, moderate, severe). For statistics, we used Pearson correlations and Spearman's rho correlations, SPSS 11.0 for windows. Results: In case of MVRS, Chiljehyangbuhwan was correlated to ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3 / CV12 and CV4). In case of VRS, Chiljehyangbuhwan was not correlated to ${\Delta}T$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05). Conclusion: The primary dysmenorrhea patients showed that severity by MVRS was connected with ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3 / CV12 and CV4) after Chiljehyangbuhwan administration. So we can consider Chiljehyangbuhwan effects the abdominal temperature according primary dysmenorrhea severity.

      • 칠제향부환(七製香附丸)이 원발성(原發性) 월경통(月經痛) 환자(患者)의 복부(腹部) 및 수장부(手掌部) 온도(手掌部 溫度)에 미치는 영향(影響)

        이창훈,조정훈,장준복,이경섭,윤영진,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Cho, Jung-Hoon,Jang, Jun-Bock,Lee, Kyung-Sub,Yoon, Young-Jin 대한한방체열의학회 2006 대한한방체열의학회지 Vol.5 No.1

        Purpose: We intended to observe the relations between Chiljehyangbuhwan and abdominal & palmar temperature according to primary dysmenorrhea severity. Methods: We selected the 100 primary dysmenorrhea patients by the screening tests (first screening test-inquiry, second screening test-clinical test. additionally WHR (Waist-to-Hip ratio) by Inbody 2.0). By the fixed blocked randomization and double blind method, Chiljehyangbuhwan or placebo was administered for 1 menstration period. Finally, 69 patients remainded. Before and after administration, we measured 4 points abdominal temperature (Chon-jung (CV17), Chung-wan(CV12), Kwan-won(CV4). Chung-guk(CV3)) by DITI(DOREX Inc., USA). And then we checked the difference of temperature $({\Delta}T)$ between CV17 and CV12/CV17 and CV4/CV17 and CV3/CV12 and CV4/CV12 and CV3. Also, we measured 2 points (palmar region, upper front of forearm) for the difference of palmar temperature $({\Delta}T)$. Then, we checked palmar temperature minus upper front of forearm temperature and took an average of right and left ${\Delta}T.$ After that. we compared ${\Delta}T$ with primary dysmenorrhea severity evaluated by VRS (verbal rating scale) and MVRS (multidimensional verbal rating scale). In dysmenorrhea severity. we standardized scale score and 3-group-severity by score (mild, moderate. severe). Besides, we compared palmar ${\Delta}T$ with abdominal ${\Delta}T$. For statistics, we used ANOVA and Spearman's rho correlations. SPSS 13.0 for windows. Results: In case of MVRS, though Chiljehyangbuhwan was correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$(CV12 and CV3/CV12 and CV4). it was not correlated to palmar ${\Delta}T$. In case of VRS, though Chiljehyangbuhwan was not correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$. it was correlated to palmar ${\Delta}T$. However. palmar ${\Delta}T$ was not correlated to abdominal ${\Delta}T$. Statistically they showed significant result (p<0.05). Conclusion: The primary dysmenorrhea patients showed that severity by MVRS was connected with abdominal ${\Delta}T$ (CV12 and CV3/CV12 and CV4) and severity by VRS was connected with palmar ${\Delta}T$ after Chiljehyangbuhwan administration. So we can consider Chiljehyangbuhwan partially effects the abdominal & palmar temperature according primary dysmenorrhea severity. However, palmar temperature was not correlated to abdominal temperature. Therefore, we need further study.

      • 남성 불임 환자의 하복부 온도에 관한 임상적 고찰

        이창훈,조정훈,장준복,이경섭,위효선,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Cho, Jung-Hoon,Jang, Jun-Bock,Lee, Kyung-Sub,Wee, Hyo-Sun 대한한방체열의학회 2005 대한한방체열의학회지 Vol.4 No.1

        Purpose : To examine the relation between male infertility and cold hypersensitivity on lower abdomen. Methods : From 2004, 4 to 2005, 10, a total 60(infertile male 30, normal male on semen analysis 30) patients who visited the Oriental gynecological department of Conmaul Oriental Medicine hospital was selected, and their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. We compared the temperature of 3 points(CV17, CV12, CV4) of both group by DITI(Dorex, DITI-16UTI and DITI-Spectrum 9000 MB). Results and Conclusion : The general characteristics such as age, weight, height, BMI, amount and frequency of drinking and smoking of both group were not different statistically. The mean ${\Delta}T1$ between upper and lower abdomen in infertile group was higer than in normal group but they were not different statistically. The mean ${\Delta}T2$ between chest and lower abdomen was $0.46{\pm}0.41$ in infertile group, and $0.18{\pm}0.56$ in normal group, and it shows significant difference statistically. There was no significant relationship between sperm motility and ${\Delta}T1$, ${\Delta}T2$ in infertile group. In this study, we suggest that an inclination of cold hypersensitivity of lower abdomen of infertile male, but it is expressed when it is contrasted to chest of the body rather than upper abdomen.

      • KCI등재

        국내 원자력 발전소 주변 토양 휴믹산의 추출 및 특성 규명

        이창훈,신현상,정근호,조영현,이창우,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Shin, Hyun-Sang,Chung, Kun-Ho,Cho, Young-Hyun,Lee, Chang-Woo 대한방사선방어학회 2003 방사선방어학회지 Vol.28 No.3

        본 연구에서는 국내 원자력발전소가 위치한 지역의 토양(영광, 울진, 고리, 고성, 월성)에 존재하는 휴믹산(HA)을 추출하여 각 시료의 원소성분 및 분광학적 방법(UV/Vis, IR, CPMAS $^{13}C$ NMR)을 이용한 물질 특성을 조사하였고, Aldrich HA과 함께 비교 분석하였다. 분자량 크기 분포의 차이는 한외여과법을 이용하여 조사하였다. 원소분석 결과, 울진 지역의 HA에서 가장 높은 산소 함량비를 보였으며, 고리와 고성지역의 HA에서 상대적으로 낮은 산소 함량비를 보였다(O/C: 0.51(UJHA) vs. 0.43(KRHA), 0.46(KSHA)). 분자량 크기 분포는 울진과 영광 지역의 HA가 고리와 고성 지역의 HA에 비하여 30,000 daltons이상의 고분자가 더 높게 존재함을 알 수 있었다. CPMAS $^{13}C$ NMR, UV/Vis., IR 등의 분광학적 특성분석 결과, 울진과 영광 지역의 HA가 고리, 고성 및 월성 지역의 HA에 비하여 상대적으로 높은 방향족성(aromaticity)과 산소 포함 작용기의 함량이 높은 특성을 보였다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때, 울진과 영광지역의 HA가 상대적으로 더 높은 휴믹화(humification) 단계의 물질 특성을 가짐을 알 수 있었으며, 금속이온과의 반응성이 더 높을 것으로 예측된다. Humic acids present in the soils at the vicinity of domestic atomic power plants(NPPs), located in Yeongkwang(YK), Uljin(UJ), Kori(KR), Koseong(KS), Wolseong(WS) area were isolated, and characterized using elemental analysis and UV/Vis, IR, CPMAS $^{13}C$ NMR spectroscopic methods. The characteristics were compared with one another and with commercial humic acid (Aldrich Co.). Molecular size distributions of the humic acids were determined using a stirred cell ultrafiltration technique. The results of elemental analysis showed that soil humic acid from UJ contains higher oxygen content than humic acids from KR and KS (O/C ratios: 0.51 (UJHA) us. 0.45(KRHA), 0.43(KSHA)). The molecular size distribution revealed that the soil humic acids of UJ and YK contained a higher percentage of larger molecules of > 30,000 daltons, compared to those of KR and KS. The spectral features obtained from UV/vis., IR and CPMAS $^{13}C$ NMR showed that the aromatic character and oxygen containing functional groups in the humic acids from UJ and YK were relatively higher than those of KR and KS. These results indicate that the soil humic acids from UJ and YK were in a higher degree of humification, which may suggest higher affinity of the humic acids with radionuclides released in the soil environments.

      • KCI등재

        온라인 게임 상의 사용자 인증에 적용 가능한 셀룰러 오토마타 기반 해쉬함수에 대한 충돌쌍 공격

        이창훈,이제상,조성언,김태훈,김수균,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Lee, Je-Sang,Cho, Sung-Eon,Kim, Tai-Hoon,Kim, Soo-Kyun 한국정보통신학회 2009 한국정보통신학회논문지 Vol.13 No.2

        본 논문에서는 온라인 게임 상의 사용자 인증에 적용 가능한 이차원 셀룰라 오토마타 기반 해쉬함수에 대한 충돌쌍 공격을 제안한다. 이것은 라운드 함수에서 사용되는 비선형 함수의 비선형 성질을 이용하여 입력된 베시지 차분을 확률 $2^{-28}$으로 상쇄시키는 공격이다. 또한, 최근 발표된 Wang의 분석 기법을 이용하여 확률 1로 만족하는 충돌쌍 공격을 제시한다. In this paper, we. present a collision attack on hash function with 2-dimensional cellular automata[1], which is useful for providing authentication on online game. This attack can find a collision message pair with $2^{28}$ computation using property of nonlinear function. We also extend basic attack with probability $2^{-28}$ to improve attack with probability 1 using Wang's analysis technique.

      • KCI등재
      • 맥파전달속도(PWV)와 말초체열분포(DITI)와의 관계 연구

        이윤재,조정훈,이창훈,이진무,장준복,이경섭,Lee, Yoon-Jae,Cho, Jung-Hoon,Lee, Chang-Hoon,Lee, Jin-Moo,Jang, Jun-Bock,Lee, Kyung-Sub 대한한방체열의학회 2008 대한한방체열의학회지 Vol.6 No.1

        Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between the PWV and the temperature difference. Methods: When it comes to senile patients who suffer from cold limbs, there is need to see whether or not the patient's low temperature of the limbs is do to arteriosclerosis. The Pulse Wave Velocity(PWV) is a non-invasive method measuring the artery's rigidness. And the Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging(D.I.T.I) is a non-invasive method to see the body's thermal change. Research on the interrelationship of the artery's rigidness and body's thermal distribution was done by using these two tests. The subjects of this research were patients between the age 40~65 who have done both the D.I.T.I and PWV in March 2005~ September 2005. They had to have no history of diabetes, coronary illnesses or cerebrovascular diseases which are diseases that can effect the outcome of the PVW, nor history of spondylopathy or dermatosis which can effect the outcome of the D.I.T.I. Results: The results were as follows. 1. There was a significant interrelationship between the right wrist-ankle PWV and the temperature difference of the right wrist-palm. 2. There was a significant interrelationship between the left wrist-ankle PWV and the temperature difference of the left wrist-palm. 3. There was no significant interrelationship between the right wrist-ankle PWV and the temperature difference of the right thigh-dorsum of foot. 4. There was no significant interrelationship between the left wrist-ankle PWV and the temperature difference of the left thigh-dorsum of foot. 5. The right ABI showed no significant interrelationship between the temperature difference of the right wrist-palm and the right thigh-dorsum of foot. 6. The left ABI showed no significant interrelationship between the temperature difference of the left wrist-palm and the left thigh-dorsum of foot. Conclusion: The study shows that there was a significant interrelationship between wrist-ankle PWV and the temperature difference of wrist-palm.

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