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The more people use ambulatory electrocardiogram(ECG) for arrhythmia detection, the more researchers report the automatic classification algorithms. Most of the previous studies don't consider the un-balanced data distribution. Even in patients, there are much more normal beats than abnormal beats among the data from 24 hours. To solve this problem, the hierarchical classification using 21 features was adopted for arrhythmia abnormal beat detection. The features include R-R intervals and data to describe the morphology of the wave. To validate the algorithm, 44 non-pacemaker recordings from physionet were used. The hierarchical classification model with 2 stages on domain knowledge was constructed. Using our suggested method, we could improve the performance in abnormal beat classification from the conventional multi-class classification method. In conclusion, the domain knowledge based hierarchical classification is useful to the ECG beat classification with unbalanced data distribution.
This paper aims to examine the way that cinema have critically reflected the modernity in the early 20th century, in its relation to Siegfried Kracauer’s concept of distraction. As a consequence of industrialization, capitalization, and urbanization at the beginning of the 20th century, individuals’ mode of perceptual experiences had been diversified. The cinema’s invention and development has been paralleled with the advance of modern age. In this regard, its early history have, spontaneously, reflected the disorders of metropolises. In his essays and books on the modern mass culture, Kracauer used a concept of distraction referring broad cultural phenomena, from spiritual impoverishment, lack of consciousness, and loss of actuality in urban spaces to the mechanized ways of visual representation and reception in movie theaters. In his writings, the distraction has both positive and negative implications. When this term is used for describing the consumer culture and the entertaining industry of 1920s’ middle classes, the distraction is defined as a negative effect, devastating people’s sense of actuality and encouraging them to pursue fantasies. In other contexts, the distraction is also understood as a kind of preliminary stage of cognition, being able to transform to the reflective thinking when the illusionary aspect is removed by specific social practices. Kracauer had expected that this intellectual potential of distraction would be developed further through the innovative screening method of Picture Palaces, which had been newly opened in 1920s’ Berlin, and through viewers’ voluntary consciousness in these places.
Defects in the epoxy insulation switchgear can result in failure. Therefore it is important to detect defects, such as void, in time and to determine their risk for a possible breakdown. For high voltage apparatus, the partial discharge (PD) detection technology has proven to be a useful method. This paper describes the application of a PD detection method for the Solid Insulated switchgear(SIS) and its practical application. Experimental studies show that the PD detection of the MV switchgear defects is possible. The practical experiences related to this study provide further insight for applying the PD monitoring technique to the solid insulated switchgears.