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Biological treatment of RO concentrate from wastewater reuse process is known to be very difficult due to its high concentration of non-degradable organics and salt ions such as chloride, nitrate and phosphate. In this research, the treatment performance of MBR was examined using RO concentrate mixed with raw wastewater as the influent of MBR. Addition of PAC (powdered activated carbon) to MBR was also evaluated in order to enhance the treatment performance and stability. The performance of MBR for treating only RO concentrate decreased gradually although external carbon source was added. The average removal performance of MBR with and without PAC decreased from 99.1 %(98.8 %) to 94.9 %(91.4 %) for COD, 81.3 %(80.3 %) to 42.0 %(41.9 %) for T-N and 57.3(55.0 %) to 30.0 %(21.0 %) for T-P with the increase of RO concentrate mixing rate of 0 % to 20 % in the feed water. Addition of PAC showed positive effect on the performance of MBR for the removal of COD and phosphorus in case that the ratio of RO concentrate to feed water increased.
For efficient project management, schedule management and delivery management-oriented techniques such as PERT / CPM and TOC-CCPM have been used in many cases. In addition, many projects, beginning with US government agencies, have adopted the EVM or TOC-TA method, which is a budget-based project progress management technique. Recently, a project management method considering simultaneously both TOC-CCPM and EVM method has been suggested. For the successful application of these techniques, it is important to divide the project into tasks using the WBS concept and to handle indirect cost when assigning the cost to each task. In this paper, we propose a suitable indirect cost allocation method for EVM application based on TOC-TA for project performance management through budget.
Purpose: Composite tissue allotransplantation is a new therapeutic modality to reconstruct major tissue defects of the head and neck region and extremities. However, there is a serious ethical debate about whether the risks posed by the life-long immunosuppression that a recipient would have to take justify the benefits of receiving this non-life saving procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine differences between expert and non-expert groups in risk acceptance and expectations regarding hand and foot allotransplantations. Methods: The author conducted a survey of 345 subjects in total (lay public n=110; medical students, n=120; doctors, n=115), using a questionnaire-based instrument, the Louisville Instrument for Transplantation (translated to Korean). Results: Of the three groups studied, risk acceptance was found to be lowest in the doctor group and highest in the non-expert group, and the difference was significant (p < 0.05). The expectations of aesthetic and functional improvement from the procedure, however, were found to be highest in the non-expert group and lowest in the doctor group, and the differences were also significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study shows that the three populations have noticeable differences in risk acceptance and expectations regarding hand and foot allotransplantations. Therefore, accurate and sufficient information on these procedures should be provided to patients from both medical and ethical perspectives.
This paper presents a solution by introducing energy storage system(ESS) to solve an annual blackout due to a typhoon or electrical failure in Udo Island. This island is now receiving electrical power through undersea cables from the Jeju Island. During blackout period, ESS will supply the electricity. And it is necessary to estimate the ESS capacity and control the transient state for the operation of stable power system. For the verification of proposed method, ESS capacities have been estimated according to base load and the minimum capacity of only home appliance in Udo Island. Also, in case of restoring from the fault, the algorithm for synchronization is proposed. Finally, the simulation results by using the PSCAD/EMTDC program will show the feasibility.
Purpose: Lymphedema of the scrotum and penis is a functionally and emotionally incapacitating problem for patients. Patients suffer pain from swelling, chronic irritation,repeated infections, drainage, and sexual dysfunction. Although there are various methods for the treatment of scrotal and penial lymphedema, achieving a satisfactory reconstruction in severe cases still remains a challenge due to the lack of locally available tissue. Methods: A 33-year-old man sustained severe lymphedema of the scrotum and penis. He reported a history of swelling since 25 years, which had been intensified during the past few months. There was no history of irritation, surgery, trauma, infection or travel to endemic countries. The authors reconstructed the scrotum and penis using 4 scrotal flaps made by incising the enlarged scrotum crucially. Results: The postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathologic examination showed nonspecific chronic inflammation. The patient was followed up for 18 months and a good reconstructive result was obtained with no recurrence. Conclusion: The authors’ method is safe and easy to perform. This method may be a convenient and reliable alternative for the treatment of severe lymphedema of the scrotum and penis.