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In this paper, I discuss Chaucer’s Clerk’s Tale by viewing the relationship between Walter and Griselda as that of a medieval translator and his translation. My major concern is how a medieval translation can serve power, more specifically the consolidation of power under particular historical circumstances. The motive and the process of Walter’s creative translation of Griselda are closely examined to show that his translation,which includes a creation of a new Griselda as a pinnacle of wifely virtue of patience, is performed as a form of political propaganda, ultimately aimed at strengthening his governing power over his people and land. My discussion of the Clerk’s Tale ends with the comparison of the two translators, Walter and the Clerk, the latter of whom is an example of an unsuccessful translator for his lack of creation in the translation.
I discuss in this paper political implications of The Romaunt of the Rose, Chaucer’s translation from Old French. For a better understanding of Chaucer’s unique attitude toward French culture, his captivity in war against France in 1359 is discussed, which opens up the possibility of seeing Chaucer as a poet resisting the French literary culture. From this historical point of view, I argue that Chaucer the translator of the Romaunt is not just a young poet attempting to learn and imitate French cultural artifact but is the one challenging dominant French literary culture. Another focus of my argument is based on Anglo-Franco relations during the Hundred Years War, changing from adversarial to more peaceful one as the century approaches to its end, which could have changed the role of Chaucer’s translation to that of promoting peace between the two countries. An extensive examinations of the historical background of Deschamps’s praise of Chaucer as “Grant translateur” (“Great translator”) shows that the French poet’s encomium of Chaucer results less from Chaucer’s success as translator than from the necessity for the French court to make peace with the English court. In the 1390s, Chaucer’s Romaunt serves as a means of building up peaceful cultural connections between English and French courts.
This article introduces a power-efficient millimeter-wave CMOS cross-polarization canceller for dual-polarized multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) systems. The dual-polarized MIMO systems can transmit two independent data streams at the same time using a horizontally polarized and vertically polarized waves. A dual-polarized antenna provides a cross-polarization isolation, which offers spatial diversity. However, the module placement, propagation, and antenna/package non-idealities cause polarization coupling resulting in degradation of the error vector magnitude. To reduce cross-polarization leakage from these non-idealities, a power-efficient passive cross-polarization leakage cancellation path is introduced. The cross-polarization leakage canceller consists of horizontal path (H-path), vertical to horizontal cancellation (V-H C) path, vertical path (V-path), and horizontal to vertical cancellation (H-V C) path. The H-path and V-path consist of the variable gain amplifier (VGA), and the V-H C path and H-V C path consist of reflection type attenuator, 0/90° 1-bit phase shifter, 0/180° 1-bit phase shifter, and 0 to 90° continuous phase shifter. Implemented in 65 nm CMOS, the proposed cross-polarization canceller improved the cross-polarization isolation better than 21.7 dB.
In this paper, I attempt to clarify the idea of translation in the British Middle Ages. My questions are twofold: How the translation achieved the status and authority of the source text, and what might be the possible relationship between translation and literature during that period. I begin with the discussion of the Roman theory of translation because it was the Romans who not only first contributed to the theoretical discussion of translation but bequeathed their theories of translation to the British Middle Ages. Particular attention is first given to Cicero whose passing remarks on translation provided the idea of translation as rhetorical recreation, and ultimate substitution, of the source text. Then the theory of translation Jerome proposed is discussed as one with the antithetical relationship with Cicero’s because the Bible translator set his objective in translation in the service of, or supplement to, the source text. My discussion of medieval translation theory is focused on the analyses of the two translations, King Alfred’s version of Boethius’s De Consolatione Philosophiae and Chaucer’s retelling of the Dido Story in his Legend of Good Women. What I suggest in my review of Alfred’s and Chaucer’s translations is both of them admit their roles as a faithful reproducer of the meaning of the source text either in the preface or in the introduction of their works; however, the translation itself betrays the translator’s conscious efforts to compete and excel their source texts. Then the medieval translation, I argue further, reflects the amalgamation of Hieronymic and Ciceronian theory of translation, the former being influential throughout the British Middle Ages and the latter gaining more and more momentum among the vernacular writers, especially during the later Middle Ages in England. From my discussion of the medieval translation, I conclude as the answers to the two questions: A medieval translation becomes an authoritative text like a classical work by means of the translator’s Ciceronian invention of its source(s); There were two kinds of translation in the later Middle Ages in England, a broader one which encompasses sub-categories of Hieronymic and Ciceronian one, the latter of which is considered a literary work in our present view.
In the seventeenth century, the court masque played the role of royal propaganda by celebrating the political order and harmony of the society. The order that the court masque represented could be achieved through either its reconciliation or banishment of the antimasque which symbolizes “forces of anarchy, rebellion, and disorder.” Milton's Comus, however, attempts to reshape the masque tradition in that the antimasques, not the masque itself,represents England. Moreover, compared with Jonson's Pleasure Reconciled to Virtue and Carew's Coelum Britannicum, Milton's Comus not only reverses the roles of the antimasque and masque but more importantly, reflects Milton's complicated, reformative responses to the masque tradition. Milton, the revisionist of the masque genre, culminates in his development of the dialectic relation between the antimasque and masque, in which the two coexist, not excluding the other while keeping their own nature unaltered. Unlike the masque tradition before Milton which segregates the world of the antimasque and that of the masque, in Milton's masque, Comus the leader of the antimasque is attributed to have a virtuous function of testing the young children's “youth,” “faith,” “patience,” and “strength,” thus contributing to their moral growth.
Since Geoffrey Chaucer is a man who is deeply concerned with women’s status in a society, women have been one of the main concerns of Chaucer scholarship. By analyzing three of The Canterbury Tales—The Second Nun’s Tale, The Man of Law’s Tale, and The Clerk’s Tale,—this study attempts to find the forms of women’s authority and elucidate how women’s authority is constructed, thus shedding new lights on the topic of women in Chaucer study. Based on the analysis of the lives of three women depicted in the three Tales, this study argues that they commonly posses “charismatic authority,” which is given to each of them when their extraordinary qualities are voluntarily recognized by religious authorities, God, or people. The three women are also given “positional authority,” which allows each of them to have a new position in the society. Moreover, the virtues of the three women enable them to have “spiritual authority” after miracles happen in the midst of their unbearable hardship. While the three women possess charismatic and positional authority when religion and/or secular power acknowledges their virtues, spiritual authority is given to them as a result of their confrontation with secular power.
This letter proposes the use of vowel sound detection for voice activity detection. Vowels have distinctive spectral peaks. These are likely to remain higher than their surroundings even after severe corruption. Therefore, by developing a method of detecting the spectral peaks of vowel sounds in corrupted signals, voice activity can be detected as well even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs reliably under various noise and low SNR conditions. This method is suitable for mobile environments where the characteristics of noise may not be known in advance.