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U.S.-North Korean relations are turning from confrontation to normalization after the end of the Cold War. Now that the Soviet Union is gone and the Cold War over, North Korea is no longer a direct threat to the U.S.. On the other hand, the U.S. has become the only superpower that can ensure the survival and development of North Korea. The overall direction of U.S.-North Korean relations will develop toward normalization but when and how this will be realized will be subject to constraints of North-South Korean relations and U.S.-North Korean relations. As of October 1997. they are at the stage of opening their bilateral negotiation. Whether they will go beyond this level will depends on how North Korea undergoes under Kim Jong 11 who has just assumed the post relationship with South Korea. Major issues at stake in these relations include the Geneva Framework Agreement, negotiation on missile and U.S. soldiers missed in action. establishing liaison offices, and resuming four-party of North-South Korean and U.S.-South Korean relations is the most thorny issue of all the North's refusal to talk with the South while trying to negotiate a peace agreement with the U.S. ostensibly to replace the armistice has been the most important obstacle to improving U.S. relations with the North. North Korea has succeeded in improving its relations with the U.S. by resorting to a diplomacy of brinkmanship especially in dealing with nuclear issues so that the U.S. can ensure its survival and legitimacy. The U.S. in turn, has come to negotiate with the North to achieve global nuclear nonproliferation and some results in missile exports and MIA issues. Since these enabled the North to negotiate with the U.S. while refusing to do so with the South, North-South Korean relations have worsened. The prospects for U.S.-North Korean relations will depend on what change takes place in the North and in North-South Korean relations in the years to come. In order for the U.S. and South Korea to facilitate U.S.-North Korean relations in harmony and in parallel with North-South Korean relations. they must sustain their common agenda for the peace and unification process by redefining their bilateral alliance against war into a regional alliance for unification in the peninsula and stability in Northeast Asia. To do so, they also need to build public support and to engage China in the process.
After communism and the Cold War ended in 1989 and the Soviet Union itself collapsed in 1991, Sino-American relations began to be strained and eventually came to a confrontation in the Taiwan Strait in March 1996. Why did the Sino-American rapprochement reached in the 1970's and 1980's turn into confrontation? How did this change take place and what have been the most salient issues in dispute? And what are the prospects for their resolution? How these issues will impact on the Korean peninsula and what should South Korea be doing about them? These are some of the questions this study is addressing here. The fundamental reason why Sino-American detente has turned into confrontation is that their common enemy has disappeared since the Soviet Union demised. Now that they have no longer a strategic adversary, their bilateral relations are bound to reflect demands of their domestic politics and events of power rivalry. As a results of conflicts between a pluralist political system and a communist one party dictatorship, and between the only super power and a rising new power, Sino-American relations have contained more conflicts and confrontation. Further exacerbating these conflicts is weak leadership and the rise of democratization and independence movements in Taiwan. Sino-American relations have to be redefined in this changing internal and external situation by exploring areas of common interests. Details of these issues will be analyzed below. For better understanding, several core contents are summarized here : First, Sino-American relations began to sour when the U.S. launched its criticism of the human rights situation in China after Beijing cracked down on the democratization movement during the Tienanmen incident while Mikhail Gorvachev was visiting China in June 1989. But they really came to a confrontation When Washington issues a visit to President Li Denghui in June 1995. Second, differences over such issues as human rights, trade, nonprolifer-ation and Taiwan deepened. Further reinforcing them was fact that the military was rising in profile in China, that the Republican Party controlled the Congress, and that the Kuomintang government in Taiwan was seeking independence and international recognition by all means at its disposal. Much more important was the change that the U.S as the only superpower was defending the status quo while China as a rising power was challenging the U.S. led world order. There has been no consensus about the proper role of China in the international system that is undergoing profound transformation. Third, the prospects for Sino-American relations depend on what kinds of change take place in China's domestic and foreign policy. As of now two diverging imperatives are emerging. Political imperatives are working toward sovereignty, nationalism and balance power but economic imperatives are working toward reform, opening and interdependence. Suppose that the military prevails in upholding political imperatives while enhancing military power and economic growth, the communist one party system will reveal hegemonism in its foreign policy. In contrast, if a basic transformation is accomplished in China by undertaking democratization and privatization, such reformed and open system may well accommodate some form of multi-lateral security talks or a concert of powers by cooperating with the U.S. on regional and bilateral issues. Or China can sustain an authoritarian system involving a one party regime and an market economy, her foreign policy will reveal continuing efforts at balance of power to play off one power against the other in the ancient tradition of "using barbarians to control barbarians." Given the current trend that China basically subscribes to realism and has a great deal of suspicions about the U.S., the third scenario is highly likely to take place. In this case, Sino-American relations are destined to have conflicts and cooperation depending on issues and personalities. Fourth, from the standpoint of South Korea, better Sino-American relations are in the interest of peace and stability, and unification on the Korean peninsula.. While coordinating their respective policies toward China, South Korea needs to develop its independent bilateral relations by promoting military, security, economic dialogues and cooperation with China so that China can be engaged in the peace and the unification process. It is important for Koreans to correctly understand the dynamics of Sino-American and Sino-Korean relations as far as the peninsula is concerned. More than anything else, we should have realistic and strategic perspectives in coordinating our policies. South Korea shares more security and political interests with the U.S. On the other hand, China's cooperation is crucial in achieving peace and stability, and eventual unification. It is unrealistic for South Korea to practice "an equidistance diplomacy" or mediation between the U.S. and China. What we can do realistically is to build bridges and confidence by first maintaining a regional alliance with the U.S. for unification and stability while trying to minimize China's opposition and negative act. It is time for us to make serious efforts to formulate a national strategy towards these goals and to implement a proactive diplomacy to achieve them.
Objective : This study was to evaluate the effect of Bee venom-Acupuncture therapy on patients with sprain of the wrist. Methods : We investigated 31 cases of patients with sprain of the wrist. We flip a coin and divide patients into two groups. Bee venom-Acupuncture was performed at on group, and the other group we didn't do it. We evaluated the treatment effect of each group by using the visual analog scale(VAS). Results : 1. As a result of evaluation by using the VAS, the score after treatment was marked lower than that before treatment within each group. 2. After treatment, Bee venom-Acupuncture therapy group showed significant difference on visual analog scale(VAS) compared with acupuncture therapy group. Conclusion : These results suggested that Bee venom-Acupuncture treatment should be more effective in the patient with sprain of the Wrist joint.
Most ZSM-5 zeolite has been synthesized with organic templates. But the study of the crystallization of ZSM-5 zeolite in the absence of organic templates is being pursued recently because of its poisonous property, high cost and environmental problem etc.. ZSM-5 zeolite which is synthesized without organic templates will be transferred to other phase because it has lower structural stability as compared with the ZSM-5 zeolite synthesized with organic templates. The purpose of this study is interpreting the ZSM-5 zeolite-to-Quartz trasformation process using some instrumental techniques including XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, EDX and SEM.