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The most important thing in sludge treatment is to reduce the volume of sludge. To achieve this purpose, sludge origin, sludge properties and factors which are affecting dewatering should be identified. Sludge characteristics including dewatering varies according to raw water qualities and operating conditions of waterworks because sludge is produced through water purification. Therefore, in this study, sludge properties and dewaterability were respectively investigated for four seasons in order to illuminate the seasonal variation of sludge properties and dewaterability. Sludge dewaterability was evaluated by means of SRF and cake solid content, C_k using both lab scaled pressure filter and full scaled belt press. In conclusion, solid content of sludge generated in Autumn showed 8.28%, higher than that of any other season. Most settleable and dewaterable sludge may be produced in Autumn owing to the least contents of volatile solid(VS) and minimum ratio of alum to turbidity(ALT ratio) in four seasons. It considered that both VS/TS ratio of sludge and ALT ratio affected significantly sludge dewatering.
This study examines the role of niche markets in the development of tourism in rural areas. Tourism is an extremely competitive and market-oriented industry, quite unlike traditional rural economic activities. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in Korea has been concerned to develop rural economies outside the agricultural sector in ways which lead to self-sufficient and sustainable economies, capable of operating in a free market. In this regard, MAF is interested in the development of tourism as a means of supporting and diversifying the rural economy. The agency is, however, inexperienced in the field of tourism, and their success rate has been uneven. While the study stresses the importance of the public/private partnership in carrying out the rural tourism program, there can be a lack of success for rural tourism enterprises if the public sector is too powerful in the leadership of the selection process. The main conclusions of this study are three-fold. There is scope for the further development of niche markets in tourism in rural areas. That development will not take place successfully without public/private sector partnerships. Further, the successful long term growth of rural tourism cannot be divorced from wider issues of rural policy making; rural tourism needs a more comprehensive planning strategy than one based solely, or even largely on the criteria constructed by MAF.
Allele frequencies at microsatellite loci D14S299 and CSR were analysed by polymerase chain reaction from Korean subjects. According to repeat number of microsatellite, nine alleles were identified at D14S299 locus and PCR amplified fragments ranged from 299 to 331 bps in size. The most frequent allele in this study was allele 30 (44.9%) followed by allele 31 (25.4%) and few more alleles. By the results of statistical analysis, the heterozygosity of D14S299 was 0.710, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) and the power of discrimination (POD) were 0.670 and 0.880, respectively. The genotype distribution and allele frequency of D14S299 microsatellite in Korean population were similar to those of Japanese and Chinese populations. Genes involved in cellular stress response (CSR) possess various numbers of dinucleotide (CA) repeats. Frequencies of two most commonly occurring alleles, a2 and a3, were 31.2% and 31.5%, respectively. Allele frequencies agreed with the Hardy-Weinberg expectation. The observed heterozygosity was 0.69, and the values of PIC and POD were 0.730 and 0.866, respectively. We found D14S299 and CSR were genetically polymorphic in the Korean population and useful microsatellite markers for forensic practices.
Activation of the T lymphocytes results in a variety of early biochemical events ultimately leading to cell proliferation and lymphokine production. Stimulation of the signal transduction cascade in T cells through the T cell receptor coincides with activation of the phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) pathway. Therefore, we have established a model system to screen immuno-simulator that can increase the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides in human T cell leukemia Jurkat cells. As a result of screening from herbal medicine extract, 4 extracts (Olibanum, Ephedrae Herba, Real Gar, Saussureae Radix) were found to increase the production of inositol phosphates. All the active fraction from the four kinds of extract were eluted in a different retention time on C-18 HPLC and these active fraction also showed difference in cell specificity. And all the active fractions increased DNA synthesis in T cell. Therefore, it is suggested that the active fraction among 4 extracts might contain a compound having different properties one another.