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For spontaneous occurrence of chromosomal inversions, we tested 1541 haploid genomes (Chromosomes 2 and 3) from a natural population of D. melanogaster in the period from 1978 to 1981. Of a total of 41 inversion types found 6 were cosmopolitans, 34 rare endemics, and 1 common endemic. None of the rare endemics were identical to any previously reported chromosomal aberrations. Of the 35 endemic types 13 inversions were found on 2L, 9 on 2R, 6 on 3L, and 7 on 3R. A nonrandom distribution of the breakpoints on the salivary gland chromosomes was observed, with the breakpoints concentrated in certain regions. Thus, the frequent occurrence of the unique inversions at restricted regions of the chromosomes most probably derives from the existence of a kind of mutator factors, such as "hi" (Ives, 1950) or transposable controlling element. (Green, 1967) in the natural population of this species.
We evaluated frequency and types of chromosomal aberrations by ionizing radiation in cancer patients treated in our institution. Twenty-five patients with various types of carcinomas such as lung. uterine cervix. esophagus, head and neck, rectum and pancreatic cancers were studied just before and immediately after external beam radiotherapy. The incidence of aberrant methphases prior to treatment was 4.93%, which was higher than that of control group. In lung cancer the frequency of abrrant methphases was 3 times higher than that of control. A comparision of chromosome abnormalities abserved before and after the radiotherapy demonstrated that proportion of aberrant metabhases was significnatly increased to 22.13%. Major chromosomal aberrations especially structural abnormalities showed remarkable increase from 65.45 to 88.45%. The numbers of chormosomal alteration per cell were increased by a factor of 6.5 after radiotherapy. Structural changes with two ro more breakpoints increased rather than those with single breakpoint and these unbalbanced type more prominent than expected 1:1 ratio. Chromosomal breakpoints were observed more prominent than expected valued expecially in 1,3,8 and 11 chromosomes. However, those were decreased in 13,15,17 and 21 chromosomes. Based on this study, we believe that the distribution of chromosomal breakages is related with gene and chromosomal rearrangement which could result in the development of cancers.
Physical education of a school must be activated to give high school students physical education class more progressively and effectively. To gain this aid it examine d600 high school students who were attending liberal and vacational high school. They were all 2nd-grade students and their high schools were situated in T City and W City of Kangwon province. It asked them what their values in physical education of a school were. The results were as follows: 1. Most students almost disliked to support the department of athletics in schools. 2. They thought of gymnasiums as the most useful facilities and wanted to use athletic facilities after school. 3. Their extent of interest in physical education class was average and most students were disinterested in physical education class owing to their poor abilities in athletic activities. 4. Most students preferred physical classes to theoretical classes and wanted to play ball games or to enjoy leisure sports in the future. 5. Many of them regarded fostering of healthy body and cultivating of socialities as an effect of physical education class. 6. Most students liked physical education teachers who were considerate, bright and cheerful.
Presented in this paper is the data from a chromosome examination of 268 patients referred for suspected chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotypes were obtained using short-term blood culture and conventional staining and G-banding methods. Of these, 180 patients had normal chromosome complements; 84 (31.3%) a major chromosome abnormality; and 4 (1.5%) a minor chromosome anomaly, giving a total of 88 (32.8%) patients with a major chromosome abnormality or distincitive chromosome variant. Among all patients with chromosome abnormalities, 70 (79.5%) had aberrations of chromosome number (aneuploids), the others had aberrations of chromosome structure; and 9.1% of these (8 out of 88) were mosaic of a normal and an aberrant cell lines. Five had a chromosome rearrangement; 3 of them were reciprocal and 2 Robertsonian translocations. Two patients with pericentric inversions and 4 with isochromosomes were observed. There were 4 patients with partial deletion of a chromosome. One patient with a ring chromosome was observed and another patient had partial deletion of a chromosome along with a characteristic marker. In addition, one patient was found to be carrying a distinctive chromosome variant (15p+). Thus the results of the present study indicate the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in clinically abnormal patients.
A cytogenetic survey was conducted for 102 patients in two institutions for the mentally retarded. Of the samples tested, 24 were found to have abnormal karyotypes: 3 had abnormalities of the sex chromosome complement; 11 showed cytogenetic features of Down's Syndrome; and 10 had other abnormalities of the autosomes. Of the 11 patients with Down's Syndrome, 9 were trisomic for chromosome 21 (one had additional abnormal Y chromosome); 1 had mosaic constitution; and another had translocation of the D/G type. 10 cases with autosomal abnormalities not associated with Down's Syndrome included 3 with translocations of either 7/14 or 3/19 type; 3 with additional chromosome material (one case of 13p+ and two of 15p+); and 4 others (once case of deletion, trisomy, supernumerary chromosome or chromatid exchange - quadriradial, complete - of mosaic constitution).
Presented in this paper is the data from a chromosome examination of 376 patients referred for suspected chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotypes were obtained using short-term blood culture and conventional staining and G-banding methods. Of these, 266 patients had normal chromosome complements; 93 (24.7%) a major chromosome abnormality; and 17 (4.5%) a minor chromosome anomaly, giving a total of 110 (29.3%) patients with a major chromosome abnormality or distinctive chromosome variant. Among all patients with chromosomal abnormalities, 74 (67.3%) had aberrations of chromosome number (aneuploids); the others had aberrations of chromosome structure; and 16.4% of these (18 out of 110) were mosaic of a normal and an aberrant cell lines. Nine had a chromosome rearrangement; 5 of them were reciprocal and 4 Robertsonian translocations. Two patients with pericentric inversions end 5 with iso-chromosomes were observed. There were 4 patients with partial deletion of a chromosome. Fifteen patients were found to be carrying distinctive chromosome variants. The commonest variant was the Dp+ (2.66%); and other common variants involved the Yq+ among males (1.1%) and Gp+ (0.8%). In a female with multiple abortion, chromosomes of D and G groups were consistently involved in "satellite association" in all cells. Thus, the results of the present study indicate the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in clinically abnormal patients.
The frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was investigated in cultured lymphocytes from 22 women with cervical cancer together with 22 control women. For scoring SCE, 40 second and/or third cycle metaphases were analyzed from each subject. The SCE frequencies were found to be 7.75 0.19 and 5.25 0.11 in cancer cases and controls, respectively. And the difference is highly significant (P<0.001). The individual SCE frequency among control subjects was relatively constant compared with cancer patients, and the variance of SCE frequency among controls was significantly smaller than among cancer cases (P<0.01). In comparison to the lymphocytes from healthy controls, the cells responding to PHA-M in cultures from cancer cases showed no cell cycle retardation. The significance of this study in relation to the possibility of using SCE as a preclinical marker will be discussed.
Inversion polymorphisms of D. melanogaster population at Taenung were examined for four years from 1978 to 1981. Of 49 inversion types found only six were common and cosmopolitan, and the rest rare endemic. Directional frequency changes occurred in four of the cosmopolitan inversions: In (2L)t > In (2R)NS and In (3R)Mo > In (3L)P in the seventies, but In(2R)NS > In (2L)t and In(3L)P > In(3R)Mo in the eighties. Of them, the frequency changes of the second chromosome inversions are consistent with other reports. While the Taenung population showed significant disequilibrium between In(3L)P and In(3R)P, with an excess of coupling gametes every year. This is also consistent with other reports. The directional changes and the nonrandom association between linked inversions can best be interpreted in terms of selection to maintain the common cosmopolitan inversion polymorphisms in natural populations of D. melanogaster.
We studied chromosomal evolution in a newly established cervical cancer cell line, CUMC-3, by sequential cytogenetic analyses of 6th, 55th, 100th and 314th in vitro passages over 5 years. There were some cells with random gain or loss of chromosome of each passage, but several consistent abnormal chromosomes were detected throughout all the passages. The modal numbers of chromosome per cell were triploid range in early 6th passage, but the numbers were increased and stabilized to hypotetraploid range from 55th to 314 passages. The structural aberrations unvaryingly involed in all cells and passages were chromosome 1 (lp^- and lq^-), chromosome 3 (3p-), chromosome 8 and 10 (isochromosomes of the long arm), chromosome 11(der(11)t(11q ; 5q)), and chromosome X (Xp^-). The marker chromosomes of iso (13q) and iso (17q) were observed only at passage 55 and 100 respectively, but the marker chromosome 20q+ was added at passage 55 and stabilized to passage 314. Other unidentified markers were found in all passages with variability in numbers and morphology. The chromosomal abnormalties observed in this cell line include many oncogene and antioncogene sites, and those of primary cervical cancers reported previously. This sequential cytogenetic study provide another example demonstrating the remarkable karyotypic stability within a heterodiploid cell line with continued passages. And consistent cytogenetic findings make this cell line a good in vitro experimental model system for the study of relationship between specific chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic alternations in carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.