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      • KCI등재

        Effective Threshold Voltage Control in GaN Nanowire Field-effect Transistors with a Dual-gate Structure

        김효석,J.-R. Kim,김주진,이정오 한국물리학회 2012 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.61 No.12

        To control the gate threshold voltages of nano-devices, we fabricated a GaN nanowire field effect transistor with a sandwich-type dual-gate structure in which the top- and bottom-gate electrodes could independently apply a gate voltage bias to the nanowire conducting channel. The fabricated device showed a clear <I>n</I>-type gate response. The gate threshold voltage of the nanowire field effect transistor could be effectively tuned over a wide range, from -13 V to +1 V, by scanning the top- or bottom-gate voltage between -10 and +10 V, respectively. As the top-gate voltage was varied from -10 V to +10 V, the carrier mobility increased from 16 to 56 cm<SUP>2</SUP>/Vs and the channel conductance increased. The turn-on position of the channel conductance could be tuned precisely by varying the voltage at one of the gates.

      • 2000년 문제의 대응전략

        김효석,Kim, Hyo-Seok 한국정보통신집흥협회 1997 정보화사회 Vol.115 No.-

        2000년 문제는 컴퓨터를 쓰기 시작한 50년동안 가장 큰 위기중의 하나이다. 문제자체는 별개 아니지만, 시간과 비용, 그리고 인력의 문제이다. 이 세가지만 충분하다면 아무 문제가 없을 것이다.

      • KCI등재
      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        탈북 디아스포라 소설의 현황과 가능성 고찰 : 김유경의 『청춘연가』를 중심으로

        김효석(Kim, Hyo-seok) 중앙어문학회 2014 語文論集 Vol.57 No.-

        본고는 김유경의 ‘청춘연가’를 통해 탈북자가 주체가 된 소설의 현황과 가능성에 대해 고찰하였다. 이 소설은 탈북자의식의 다양성과 탈북자 전형을 보여주고 있다는 점에서 중요한 의미를 지닌다. ‘청춘연가’에 등장하는 ‘선화’와 ‘복녀’, ‘경옥’은 하나원 동기들로 남한 정착 이후에도 남한 내 탈북자로서 집단의식을 공유한다. ‘선화’는 북한정권과 탈북과정으로 인한 고통과 분노를 날 것으로 드러내기보다는 탈북자 이면의 양가적 감정들을 은유적으로 보여준다. ‘복녀’는 탈북자로서의 자존감을 강하게 드러내면서 남한 사회에 대한 비판적 시선도 드러낸다. ‘경옥’은 그동안 탈북자 서사에서 금기시되었던 자본에 대한 욕망을 가감없이 드러내고 있다. 하지만 소설 속 탈북자들은 전지구적 자본주의 아래 재식민화되는 과정을 객관적으로 바라보지 못하고 있어 아쉬움을 준다. 또한 ‘청춘연가’는 소설제목의 명명법이나 창작방법론에서 북한소설의 특성을 지니면서도 남과 북의 화해와 결합을 꿈꾸는 재영토화의 욕망을 함께 보여준다. 무엇보다 ‘청춘연가’는 이전의 증언서사와 달리 소설적 화자를 통해 탈북자 집단의 다양하고 복잡한 의식지향을 보여주기 시작했다는 점에서 의미가 깊다. This study investigated present situation and possibility of novels that the North Korean refugee became the subject, through Kim Yugyeong’s 「choung chun youn ga」. Kim Yu-gyeong’s 「choung chun youn ga」(Youth Sonata) has significance for showing diversity of North Korean refugee consciousness and model of them. ‘Seon-hwa’, ‘Bok-nyeo’ and ‘Gyeong-ok’ in Youth Sonata are those who joined Hanawon(Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees), and they share the group consciousness of North Korean refugees in South Korea after they settled in South Korea. ‘Seon-hwa’ shows ambivalent emotions of the North Korean refugee’s hidden side metaphorically, rather than expressing in the raw the pain and anger caused by the North Korean regime and the escape process from North Korea. ‘Bok-nyeo’ strongly reveals self-esteem as the North Korean refugee and casts critical eyes on the South Korean society at the same time. ‘Gyeong-ok’ shows nakedly the desire of capital that has been a taboo in the North Korean refugees’ description. However, in that the North Korean refugees in this novel can not objectively see the recolonization process under capitalism, it lacks something. Also, 「choung chun youn ga」(Youth Sonata) takes on the North Korean novel character in nomenclature of novel’s title or creation methodology and shows desire of re-territorialization that dreams of inter-Korean reconciliation and union. Above all, unlike the other testimony description, it is very important in starting to show various and complicated consciousness of the North Korean refugee group through the novel speaker.

      • KCI등재

        북한의 장편소설 『전환』을 통해 본 ‘수령형상’ 문학의 특성과 창작원리

        김효석(Kim Huo-suk) 중앙어문학회 2000 語文論集 Vol.28 No.-

        It is true that as time goes, the literature of North Korea also shows the symptom of change a little. We can no longer deny that the 'chief-shape literature' is still in the center of the literature of North Korea. It is considered that the political gross matter, such as the death of Il-Seong, Kim and the selection of Jeong-Il, Kim and the poverty, such as difficulty of obtaining food resulting from the deluge in 1995 and the second flood in 1996 couldn't change the principle of the North Korea Literature. And when we keep these facts in mind, it is supposed that the literary of North Korea faces two problems without exception; the succession of the existing literature and the change according to the demand of the times. We felt all over again, through the novel 『Cheon hwan』 published in 1999, how the creative method of 'the chief-shape literature' has remained strong, which has begun to take firm root since 1967. Above all, the importance of 『Cheon hwan』 is to grasp the contemporary real state of the literary and artistic policy of North Korea indirectly through this work. In fact, 'the chief-shape literary' began in the historical reality of the past and were created under the clear sense of purpose may hold extremely suppressed limitation of the expression of a writer's personal desire. Nevertheless, 'the chief-shape literature' remains magnificent showing the characteristic and limitation of the literature of North Korea. To perceive the change of 'the chief-shape literature' is the method to confirm the true change of the literature of North Korea.

      • KCI등재

        주교회의의 입법권과 『한국 지역 교회법전 I』 고찰

        김효석(Hyo-Suk Kim) 한국가톨릭신학학회 2021 가톨릭신학 Vol.- No.38

        보편교회법은 주교회의에 제한적인 입법권을 부여하였다. 주교회의는 보편교회법이 명시하거나 사도좌가 특별 위임한 안건에 한해서만 일반 교령을 제정할 수 있다. 이러한 제약은 개별 교회 교구장의 자율성과 권한을 훼손하지 않으면서도 주교들의 사목적 협력을 강화하려는 의도가 반영된 것이다. 주교회의는 법률인 일반 교령뿐만 아니라, 법률의 집행을 위한 방식을 정하는 일반 집행 교령도 제정할 수 있다. 일반 교령은 법률의 본성을 갖기에, 원칙적으로 일반 교령의 제정자는 입법권자로 한정되지만, 명시적 위임이 있는 경우 집행권자도 같은 권한을 행사한다. 반면 일반 집행 교령은 행정 행위이기에, 그 제정자는 집행권자로 확대된다. 주교회의가 유효하게 일반 교령을 제정하기 위해서는, 반드시 총회의 승인이 필요하며, 이를 위해 의결투표권을 가진 정회원의 3분 2이상의 찬성을 얻어야 한다. 또한 주교회의가 승인한 일반 교령은 사도좌의 인준을 받고, 합법적으로 공포되어야 한다. 한국 천주교 주교회의는 2005년에 『한국 지역 교회법전 I』을 발간하였다. 이 책에는 다양한 명칭을 지닌 문서들이 담겨 있는데, 일반 교령과 일반 집행 교령이 혼재한다. 이 중에 본 논문은, 법적 성격에 의문이 생길 수 있는 두 문서, 즉 ‘한국 교회의 교회법 보완 규정’과 ‘한국 천주교 사목지침서’를 중점적으로 고찰하였다. 첫 번째 문서는, 보편교회법이 주교회의에 입법을 맡긴 사안들 중 한국 천주교 주교회의가 제정한 일반 교령으로서 2002년 사도좌의 인준을 받았다. 두 번째 문서는, 복합적인 내용으로 구성된다. 우선 한국 사목자들이 사목 활동을 위해 상기해야 할 보편교회법 조문을 발췌하였고, 200주년 기념 사목회의 의안에서 채택한 사안을 수록하였으며, 한국의 국법 중 참고할 조항들을 나열하였다. 이 문서는 엄밀한 의미에서 입법적 성격의 일반 교령이나 일반 집행 교령으로 볼 수 없으며, 한국 사제들의 사목 활동에 도움이 되는 ‘사목 안내서’로 분류될 수 있다. 종합하여 보면, 주교회의가 제정한 입법적 성격의 일반 교령은 ‘한국 교회의 교회법 보완 규정’뿐이다. Universal laws allow a conference of bishops to have limited legislative power. The conference can issue general decrees but only within what is prescribed in universal laws or specially mandated by the Apostolic See. These restrictions are imposed with the intention to strengthen pastoral cooperation of bishops while they do not undermine autonomy and power of each diocesan bishop. The bishops’ conference can issue not only general decrees which are laws but also general executory decrees that provide methods to enforce laws. In principle, issuers of general decrees are limited to those who are legislators because the general decree have the nature of law. But if there is an explicit delegation, persons possessing executive power can also exercise the same authority. On the other hand, general executory decrees are administrative acts and their issuers are expanded to persons possessing executive power. For a conference of bishops to enact general decrees validly, it is essential to receive approval from a plenary session with at least two thirds of the votes of regular members entitled to deliberative votes. Then the approved general decrees should be reviewed by the Apostolic See before they are promulgated legally. In 2005, the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Korea published 『The Code of Korean Local Church I』 that contains documents of various titles comprising both general decrees and general executory decrees. This paper is to look into two documents of the Code as questions might be raised pertaining to their legal character; 「Legislation of Bishops’ Conference Complementary to the Code」 and 「Pastoral Directory of the Church in Korea」. The first document, 「Legislation of Bishops’ Conference Complementary to the Code」 reviewed by the Apostolic See in 2002, contains general decrees issued by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Korea among what is entrusted to the Conference by general laws. The second one, 「Pastoral Directory of the Church in Korea」, is comprised of complex content such as excerpts of canons from universal laws which Korean pastors should remember for their pastoral acts, the content adopted in the bills of pastoral council for bicentennial celebration, and articles from civil laws for reference. Technically speaking, this document cannot be seen as general decrees or general executory decrees with the legislative nature. Rather it can be categorized as ‘a pastoral vademecum’ that should help Korean pastors in their pastoral acts. In conclusion, the 「Legislation of Bishops’ Conference Complementary to the Code」 is the only general decrees with the legislative character issued by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Korea.

      • KCI등재후보

        우리 나라 약물 남용자에서의 C 형 간염 바이러스 항체 양성율

        김효석(Hyo Suck Kim),추동호(Dong Ho Choo) 대한내과학회 1996 대한내과학회지 Vol.50 No.2

        N/A limit. Also only 6cases(22.2%) had symptoms of hepatitis such as fatigue, anorexia. 5) the prevalence of HBsAg in drug users was only 8.8%. Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-HCV among intravenous drug users in Korea was 79.4%, comparable to that in europe and USA. Duration of drug use might be associated with higher anti-HCV seropositivity

      • KCI등재

        ‘경계境界’의 보편성과 특수성

        김효석(Kim Hyo-Seok) 중앙대학교 문화콘텐츠기술연구원 2009 다문화콘텐츠연구 Vol.7 No.-

        Novels about ‘North Korean refugee’ reveal the author’s idea of various reactions and transnational, trans-racial imagination which goes beyond the conception of ‘borders’ in the post modern period. This essay treats the diverse and interesting views of authors which could be found in their full-length novel or in their book series. This essay could be divided into three big directions. In Chapter 2 of this essay: ‘Construction of borders and break down of taboos’, the two different attitude of the South Korea society toward North Korean refugees has been discussed considering the novels of Lee Ho Lim and Kwan Lee. In Lee Ho Lim’s novel 『Yi Mae, asking the way』, we can see that the author is criticizing the passive reactions of the South Korea government and its citizens. On the contrary, Kwan Lee’s novel 『Left handed Mr. Lee』 appears a different view that the fixed prejudice upon the defectors are changing and the author tries to exceed the dichotomous, political reality of the South Korea society. In Chapter 3-‘Living as a person with borders, the resistance of universal capitalism’-we discussed about Hwang Suk Young and Kang Young Suk’s novel which tries to expand the North Korea defector issue to universal life problems of human. Hwang Suk Young’s novel 『Ba Ri Dae Gi』and Kang Young Suk’s novel 『Lina』 focuses on the dark shadows of globalization, the socially isolated people, by speaking about North Korean refugees. Ba Ri (in 『Ba Ri Dae Gi』) and Lina (in 『Lina』) which means the regional, limitative meaning of ‘North Korean refugees’ in the divided situation, is expanded to mean citizens who are fell behind in the great wave of the universal capitalism. In Chapter 4 we discussed about North Korean refugees who are trying to settle down in South Korea, by using idea which were expressed in Jung Do Sang and Lee Dae Hwan’s novel. The novel series of Jung Do Sang 『Brier』 is about the tragedy of miserable lifes that North Korean refugees are spending as a rooted out citizen. On the other hand Lee Dae Hwan tries to express his thought in his book 『Big money and Condom』, that North Korean refugees should try to dip their body into capitalism in order to settle down in South Korea. To achieve a more meaningful literary outcome by writing novel’s about North Korean refugees, authors should try harder to cover the uniqueness and universality of North and South Korea society and defectors. This way they will at last find a more delicate way to express the various identity of North Korean refugees.

      • KCI등재후보

        총담관 결찰시 간세포의 초미형태학적 변화

        김효석(Hyo Suk Kim),박재용(Jae Young Park),김은영(Eun Young Kim),곽규식(Kyu Sik Kwak),최용환(Young Hwan Choi),정준모(Joon Mo Chung) 대한내과학회 1989 대한내과학회지 Vol.36 No.4

        N/A In order to investigate the morphologic changes of hepatocytes after ligation of the common bile duct, we doubly ligated and cut the common bile duct of male Sprague-Dawley rats and observed the changes of the liver by light microscope, transmission and scanning electron microscope at 2,4,6 and 8 week after ligation. The results were as follows: Under the light microscope, we noted marked ductular proliferation anc1 fibrosis with chronic inflammatory infiltration in the widened portal area at 2 weeks after ligation, which later became more prominent and invaded the periphery of the lobule and centrilobular area, until 6 weeks, when early cirrhosis was established. On examination under the election microscope, we noted and increment in the amount of smooth endopalsmic reticulum, hyperplasia and distension of the Golgi apparatus, an increment of lysosomes, widening of the pericanalicular ectoplasm, a slight swelling of mitochondria and decrement of cristae at 2 weeks after ligation. The bile canaliculi were dilated remarkably and their micromilli were decreased in number or absent at 2 weeks after ligiation. Also, a phenomenon referred to as canalicular varicositv was noted which later became more severe but the tight junction was rather well preserved. The results of this study suggest that recognizable early cirrhotic change of the liver is established at 6 weeks after common bile duct ligation, and that canalicular varicosity is one of the characteristic ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes after common bile duct ligation. The mechanism of cholestasis must also be considered as well as the other possible routes, including the passway from bile canaliculus to sinusoid.

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