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Objective To find the characteristics of elderly gait, we compared the elderly walking at a moderate speed with the young adult walking at a slow, moderate, and fast speed. Methods 3D gait analysis was performed on 15 elderly and 15 young adults. Temporo-spatial, kinematic, and kinetic parameters were obtained. Self-selected moderate speed of the elderly walking was compared with self-selected varying speed of the young adults walking. Results The elderly walked at slower speeds and had shorter step length, but showed similar cadences compared to the young adults. These results remained identical even after the normalization with height. The kinematic and the kinetic graph patterns did not show specific differences between the elderly and the young subjects. Ankle plantarflexion (APF) motion was prominently decreased in the elderly subjects. Hip flexion (HF) motion remained within similar range for the young adults’. HF moment and power were similar with the young adults’, but APF power and hip extension power were decreased in the elderly subjects’. Conclusion A decreased APF motion and power were thought to be specific findings in the elderly walking. The preservation of HF motion and power could be considered a compensation mechanism or a modified neuromuscular pattern in the elderly. The characteristics of the elderly walking should be taken into account when planning rehabilitation strategies of elderly gait training and for future studies on the elderly population.
The wear behaviors of Al₂0₃-40%TiO₂ deposited on Al-alloy of casting(ASTM A356) by plasma spray against SiC ball have been investigated experimentally. Friction and wear tests are carried out at room temperature. The friction coefficient of Al₂0₃-40%TiO₂ coating is lower than that of pure Al₂0₃ coating(APS). It is found that low friction correspond to low wear and high friction to high wear in the experimental result. It is found that a voids and porosities of coating surface result in the crack generated. As the tensile stresses in coating increased with the increased friction coefficient. It is found that the cohesive of splats and the porosity of surface play a role in wear characteristics.
In order to study the atomizing performance used for Electronic Fuel Injection, Injection valve which has double square thread with helix angle 3" was prepared for experiments. As a result of the study. To improve the spray of initial injection stage. the movement of needle must he quickened and spray angle depend on injection pressure. Effect of needle lift on the spray was related to injection pressure, nozzle din and length.