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The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects and problems related to the application and use of the nursing diagnosis in practice. The data were obtained from 532 nurses who worked in 3 hospitals of Korea University Medical Center from Apr. 15 to Apr. 28, 1995. Data were analyzed by frequency, persent, mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test through pc-SAS program. The results were as follows : 1. The degree of the effects of the application of nursing diagnosis in practice was comparatively high (mean:3.90). The nurses expected to promote the effectiveness of nursing practice through the application of nursing diagnosis in practice. 2. The degree of the problems with the use of nursing diagnosis was comparatively high(mean:3.77). The problems were the lack of time and personnel and the lack of knowledge and will. 3. No general characteristics were related to the nurse's degree of effects. But, the general characteristics related to the nurse's degree of problems were age(F=5.89, p= .0006), educational level (F=11.80, p= .0001), duty career (F=5.03, p= .0009) and position (F=3.23, p= .02). 4. The majority of the nurses(84.6%) expressed the necessity of the application and use of the nursing diagnosis. They indicated that the tasks for the application and use of the nursing diagnosis were strengthening through the education about nursing diagnosis and maintaining the adequate manpower ratio.
From a learners standpoint, curriculum includes study goal, study course, study orientation and contents. Therefore, in order to effectively attain the educational goal, it is imperative that the curriculum be established reflecting such elements accordingly. Futhermore, once this has been achieved, continuous improvement must be incorporated in accord with the changes of the time. The WTO system has been inaugurated along with the promotion of globalization and internationalization. And international trade department at the four-year universities are going through the rearrangement period. In this context and taking into consideration the fact that Korean society presents foreign dependence structure, Korea requires capable professionals with more advanced knowledge and skills in the trade field, now more than ever. No doubt, trading is of fundamental importance for Korean economy. Therefore, nurturing the capable trade professionals is a must for the future. The present study has been conducted in accord with the following principles stated below for establishment of international trade department curriculum, as well as its management. 1. Analyze the prospective career groups for the graduates pinpointing the groups most suit-able for them. The characteristics of the international trade department are to be taken into consideration. The career group which has been narrowed in the following five fields: Trading company field, Finance field, Customs field, Trading transportation field, and Trading. insurance field. Based on such classification, establish a curriculum which meets the job requirements in specific. 2. For those students wishing to enter the fields specified above should take the core course - mainly course requirements for the major - till the second semester of the first year. From the first semester of the second year, students can choose from the electives in accord with the career choice and path each ha mapped out. 3. In order to for the students to gain more competitiveness in their chosen field, the curriculum opens the courses which may be required to earn various certificates such as Certificate of Certified International Trade Specialist, Certificate of Certified Customs Specialist, etc. 4. In order to meet the requirements set by the industries, put a special emphasis on English and the subject concerned with English instruction through opening the relevant courses and attributing credits and sufficient class time accordingly. 5. Selection of the curriculum would be practical knowledge oriented needed for the trading practices in close cooperation with the industries. This focus will differentiate the course from that offered by the theory and research oriented four-year universities. 6. Trade automation course is to be incorporated in order to meet the coming information era in the most effective way. Students will develop the skills to maneuver high-tech office utilities. 7. Strengthen and enhance practical side of learning in order for the students to quickly adjust to real work situation. Field studies would meet such needs. 8. Two year integral education has been sought after in establishing the curriculum so that the students graduate ready for a real life work experience, without needing the intern ship period. 9. Credits are reasonably distributed in accord with the difficulties of each course, rather than indiscriminately. For earning three credits, three class hours is required. 10. Each semester, students can earn up to 24 credits in 97 total credits. However, flexibility is adopted with regard to the credit earning in the range established. Therefore, students have a wide range of choosing the course rather flexibly.
In an attempt to evaluate the content and process of clinical practice in the baccalaureate nursing curriculum of Korea University and to identify perceived obstacles of clinical practice and to propose an innovative principle for the promotion of clinical nursing education program, a descriptive research was designed and carried out. Data were obtained from 41 senior nursing students of Korea university, 50 nurse-graduates of Korea University within 2 years and have worked as staff nurses in Korea University Hospitals, and 44 head nurses and supervisers of Korea University hospitals dually assigned to carry out clinical instructions for nursing students by Korea University. By 35-item, 5-point Likert opinionaire, developed by the researchers, data were gathered from May 15 to 31, 1996. Frequency, percentage, mean, stanard deviation were calculated, Factor-analysis, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test by pc-SAS program were carried out. Results are as follows: 1. By the Varimax rotation factor analysis of 35 items related to the evaluation of clinical practice of nursing students revealed to be divided into 3 domains namely educational environment of clinical settings, the contents of clinical practicum, and professors. The level of evaluation score on 35-item was comparatively low (mean=2.86, ranging 1-5) ; educational environment of clinical settings (mean=2.65), professors (mean=2.95) and content of clinical practicum (mean=3.O4) respectively. 2. The level of evaluation scores of 3 domains between 3 groups; nursing students, staff nurses and clinical instructors showed statistically significant differences (F=32.18, P=.001, F=15.10, P=.001, F4.76, P=.05). Duncan's multiful range test revealed that the nursing students and the staff nurses revealed the significantly lower scores than clinical instuctors in all 3 domains of evaluation. 3. The analysis of rank order of the perceived obstacles and the proposed priority of tasks to overcome obstacles; 'the shortage of nurse manpower in clinical settings' revealed to be the highest in the rank of obstacles, and the innovative clinical teaching system by 'full-time clinical instructors stationed in specific clinical settings be adopted' revealed the highest in the rank order.
This study aims to perform a contrastive analysis of the semantic expansion of the adjective “spicy” in the Korean and Chinese. Words affiliated with the Korean “맵다” and “辣[là]” are objects of analysis. First, both the meanings of “맵다” and “辣” are expanded to include the sense of pain as they share the models of this spicy-painful taste in hot pepper and mustard. A major difference to be found is that “辣” is more flexible and expansive in its inclusion of the taste of hard liquor. Second, in both Korean and Chinese, the meaning of the adjective “spicy” is extended to tactile and olfactory senses, accompanied by the sense of pain. When transferred to the tactile sense, “spicy” expresses different sense of heat: in Korean, spicy is perceived as cold whereas in Chinese, spicy is conceived as hot. Third, “spicy” in Chinese is also applied to abstract objects, often in negative terms. It is even used to characterize sexy women. None of these Chinese applications are found in the Korean usage of the word. Finally, the Korean “맵다” and the Chinese “辣” denote emotions: in Korean, it refers only in part to sadness and regret whereas in Chinese, a greater variety of emotions including love, rage, shame and distress is expressed by the term “辣”.
Background: The purpose of this study is to determine how the cognitive state of the elderly influences the activities of daily living(ADL) in order to increase their achievement capacity and their ability to exercise this capacity in daily life. The MMSE-K(Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean) was used to evaluate the daily activities and cognitive state of a group of subjects more than 65 years of age. The goal was to understand (1) How their achievement level in their daily activities changes according to the increase and decrease of their cognition points by analyzing and comparing their achievement points in the mental state examination, and (2) What variables influence that daily achievement level. Methods: The survey was conducted by a group of students from AnSan College who were trained for this method of data collection. The group surveyed 224 senior citizens older than 65 to determine their ADL performance. The subjects were selected from Silver Care Centers in the Gyounggi Province area including centers in Suwon, Anyang, Kwachun, and Sanbon City. The subjects were given enough information to fully understand the purpose of the study and the method by which it would be conducted. The survey method was a direct interview: which involved an interviewer reading the questionnaire to the subject and recording the answer. Result: The following results were calculated using SPSS WIN ver. 13.0: In the lower score of the MMSE-K regarding ADL performance (K-MBI) for activities such as individual hygiene, bathing activity, food activity, toilet management, going up stairs, getting dressed ad undressed, controlling stools and urination, walking, and chair/bed movement, most of the subjects responded that they could not perform these activities by themselves (p<.01). In the higher scores for the same activities, most response that they could perform the tasks by themselves (p<.01). In the results of the multiple regression analysis, there influence of the variables for ADL performance (K-MBI) and MMSE-K score was higher for females than males. Conclusion: This study evaluated the cognitive state of the elderly using the MMSE-K, which is the most convenient method, and examined how the cognitive state influences the achievement capacity of the daily lives with other variables. In conclusion, the higher the score on the MMSE-K, the more independent the elders are in the activities of daily living, especially among women more than men.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sensory integration education to autistic child's development of behavior, language and motor. By making confused sensory function from dull to keen, sensory function was improved. These improvement of sensory function was the foundation of child's behavior, language and motor. These meant that education of sensory integration made control autistic child's hyperactivity and desirable pattern of motor. This meant that education of sensory integration made language of sensory integration that is to say receptive language improved.
The results of researching on duties of physical therapist, understanding of elderly diseases and policies related with elderly welfare came out from the survey before beginning of education to physical therapists who attended National Elderly Welfare Physical Therapist Workshop during Sep. 11th to 14th, 2007. They have already understood about long-term elderly care insurance from the policy, and responded that those policies will bring more advantage to elders. On contrary, negative response had reason of low service quality. About elderly care system, there were positive answer of appropriate alternatives to support them, but also other critics had opinion of inevitable choice for living conservation. About understanding of elderly diseases, there were more comprehension of diseases as age gets higher, but most did not understand dementia and paralysis. Past experience and process of medical treatment for their disease were such arthritis, paralysis, broken bone, and dislocation of joint. Prognosis of technical training was mostly answered positively, but linking with other related disease programs were not welcomed. Most respondents thought that professional training were needed. The results of understanding diseases during senescent had high percentage of understanding as age and education was high, and it had eye upon statistics of the survey (p < 0.05) Most of those questioned responded that it is appropriate to have six working days per week and eight hours of daily work, however, present wage is not reasonable. Most of those questioned had negative response of work independence, and had an-swered that there should be certificates needed in related fields. For difficulties during work period, they had hardship instituting direction of treatment by lack of program, level of wage, and physical difficulties. Physical therapists averagely wished to have fewer than thirty patients per therapist. After the research, physical therapists who work in those facilities of elderly care systems agreed on policies, though it should not lower service quality. In addition, they were pros to have elderly care system, yet they are still inevitable option to maintain living. For work environment, the period of work was appropriate, but had different opinions for work independence and regular number of patients. Therefore, there should be more organized treatment program that also should be linked to other practical programs at this beginning point of the policy enforcement and the time that many therapists hope to work in elderly care system.
종교가 인성을 통합하고 변화시킬 수 있으며 또한 인생의 의미에 대해 근본적으로 사고하여 긍정적인 자아개념을 갖게 함으로 성숙한 종교성을 갖는 사람은 그 자신의 삶에서 의미를 발견하고 보람과 확신을 가지고 자신의 생각에 임하기 때문에 자신의 내적 통제성뿐 아니라 함께 생활하는 가족원에게도 긍정적인 영향을 미친다. 대순진리회는 유, 불, 도의 고전, 동양종교뿐 아니라 기독교의 교리까지 적극적으로 수응하는 자세를 갖고 있는 독특하고 창조적인 종파이다. 이러한 대순사상에서는 한국의 전통적인 가정교육을 근본으로 하고 있으며 특별히 성인과 아동을 구분하여 교육하기보다 성인과 함께 공부하였으며, 주로 가정생활 사회생활 그 자체에서 통합적인 인격교육을 하였다. 마음에 신을 모시는 인존의 인간상을 이상상으로 생각하고 태교를 하며 부모됨의 준비로 심신을 정성으로 가다듬고, 출산하였다. 그리고 가정을 바탕으로 부모가 가정 분위기를 화목하게 만들고 스스로 모범이 되어 주었다. 또한 부모가 그 부모에게 효행하는 모습을 보고 느끼게 하여 스스로 효성스런 행동을 하게 했으며, 인간관계에 있어서 윗사람은 윗사람으로 아랫사람은 아랫사람으로의 역할을 하여 서로간의 관계를 인간답게 할 수 있도록 하였다. 타인과의 관계에서 경쟁심과 시기심을 억제할 수 있는 인성을 갖게 하여 양보의 미덕을 갖추게 했으며 이를 바탕으로 협동심, 단결력, 상부상조, 타인의 배려심, 책임감, 준법성 등을 함양하는 인성중심의 아동교육을 실천 했다. 따라서 종교는 아동의 정의적 행동특성을 향상시키고 바람직한 인성교육에 매우 긍정적인 결정요소로 작용한다. One of the most positive aspects religion can provide us with is that it nables and leads earnest seekers to the path of light and Truth. In other words, it can give us a true understanding of nature, of ourselves, and of other human beings. Thus, a man of well-balanced religious perspectives can find meanings of his or her being present on Earth, thereby being ever ready to confront with confidence and humility whatever comes in his or her way. In this way, a true religion can awaken and unfold in us the knowledge about is or her own Soul and Spirit by which he or she can ennoble his or her mind and identity, which in turn elevates not only his or her own feelings as a member of a family, but also all the members of the family he or she belongs to. The Religious Order of Daesoonjinrihoe is a unique and creative denomination which has maintained, since its establishment in 1969, the consistent stance to adopt, without any prejudice, some of the typical creeds not only from oriental religions such as Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, but also from western religions such as Christianity among others. In the ideology of Daesoon, education is primarily based on the traditional education of Korea which has been characterized mainly by the following two aspects: First, instead of having adults and children in different educational situations respectively, adults and children are being educated together in the same educational situation. Second, integrated education for personality and morality is done under the domestic and social environments. To the people of Daesoonjinrihoe, carrying the truths of Daesoon deep in mind is an ideal state of their faith. Based on the truths growing deep in their mind, they try to purify their mind and body and to get prepared for the delivery of babies. Parents do their roles as they are supposed to do in order to make their family in harmony. In the pedagogy of Daesoon, Parents are supposed to play in the family as the role-models for children so that children should model themselves after their parents. In this way, filial piety, which is one of the most important values of Daesoon, can be taught to and internalized in the children. Education for better relationship between seniors and juniors is also done on the same pedagogical principle: Children learn and follow what they see from their parents. Education for better relation focuses mainly on cultivating in children such characteristics as concession which will restraint harsh competition and jealousy against other people. Therefore I want to suggest several things to promote the education Daesoonjinri.