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Background: CTLA4 (CD152), which is expressed on the surface of T cells following activation, has a much higher affinity for B7 molecules comparing to CD28, and is a negative regulator of T cell activation. In contrast to stimulating and agonistic capabilities of monoclonal antibodies specific to CTLA-4, CTLA4Ig fusion protein appears to act as CD28 antagonist and inhibits in vitro and in vivo T cell priming in variety of immunological conditions. We've set out to confirm whether inhibition of the CD28-B7 costimulatory response using a soluble form of human CTLA4Ig fusion protein would lead to persistent inhibition of alloreactive T cell activation. Methods: We have used CHO-$dhfr^-$ cell-line to produce CTLA4Ig fusion protein. After serum free culture of transfected cell line we purified this recombinant molecule by using protein A column. To confirm characterization of fusion protein, we carried out a series of Western blot, SDS-PAGE and silver staining analyses. We have also investigated the efficacy of CTLA4Ig in vitro such as mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) & cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and in vivo such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), graft versus host disease (GVHD) and skin-graft whether this fusion protein could inhibit alloreactive T cell activation and lead to immunosuppression of activated T cell. Results: In vitro assay, CTLA4Ig fusion protein inhibited immune response in T cell-specific manner: 1) Human CTLA4Ig inhibited allogeneic stimulation in murine MLR; 2) CTLA4Ig prevented the specific killing activity of CTL. In vivo assay, human CTLA4Ig revealed the capacities to induce alloantigen-specific hyporesponsiveness in mouse model: 1) GVHD was efficiently blocked by dose-dependent manner; 2) Clinical score of EAE was significantly decreased compared to nomal control; 3) The time of skin-graft rejection was not different between CTLA4Ig treated and control group. Conclusion: Human CTLA4Ig suppress the T cell-mediated immune response and efficiently inhibit the EAE, GVHD in mouse model. The mechanism of T cell suppression by human CTLA4Ig fusion protein may be originated from the suppression of activity of cytotoxic T cell. Human CTLA4Ig could not suppress the rejection in mouse skin-graft, this finding suggests that other mechanism except the suppression of cytotoxic T cell may exist on the suppression of graft rejection.
Purpose: This study identified and compared influential variables on intention and action to quit smoking between adolescent smokers and adult smokers. Methods: For the selection of variables, the transtheoretical theory was used. A survey was conducted with 376 adolescent smokers in 4 high schools and 451 adult smokers in community settings in South Korea. Discriminant analysis was used for data analysis Results: The variables of adolescent smokers that predicted an intention to quit smoking were: smoking temptation, self re-evaluation, counter conditioning and stimulus control. The variables that predicted an action to quit smoking were:self-efficacy for smoking abstinence, pros for smoking, self reevaluation, and self liberation. The variables of adult smokers that predicted an intention to quit were: smoking temptation, pros for smoking, cons for smoking, self reevaluation. The variables that self liberation and predicted an action to quit smoking were: self efficacy for smoking abstinence, smoking temptation, and counter conditioning. Conclusions: Developing stage specific smoking intervention methods based on different ways of how individuals make a decision to quit smoking within their contexts needs to be done.
Mr. Suh, the narrator of this life history was a man who was twenty-nine year sold and was occupied in the field of paramedicine. The narrations of life history present the way a person conceptualized the stream of experience that constitute his life as he knows it, so through analysis of life history, operating characteristics of the context can be identified. The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the sociocultural context in Korean through a life history of a man being occupied in the field of paramedicine. Nursing is a profession practiced on the basis of humanism. Therefore, nursing science should take its starting point in understanding about context of human being. A human being is always within the world, lives a life through the world and know himself in the word. Interpersonal communications and human behaviors reflect the consensus of social life. The characteristic of life history is subjective. Therefore the datas are analysed by taking perspectives of phenomenology and hermeneutics. In depth interviews and observations were carried out from June, 1992, through June, 1993. and datas were classified by 6 categories ; those were growing process, family view, married view, evaluation of present occupation, evaluation of medicine, and desire of the future. The result presented the view points about : those were 1) the sociocultural background of a man in middle class. 2) the meaning of legitimate field. 3) the changing point of a man 4) the power of money 5) the evaluation about paramedicine in health care system.
This study is an attempt to analyze and develop the concept of comfort by applying the Hybrid Model suggested by Schwarz-Barcott and Kim. The data were collected from December 15, 1996 to January 30, 1997. The subjects of the study were seven persons including in -patients and out- patients of general hospital who were experiencing recovering process after acute and chronic disease diagnosis. Qualitative research methods of in-depth interview and participant observation were used for data collection. Data-analysis progressed according to the 3 phases suggested by the Hybrid Model. For each case, in-depth interview data and participant observation data were included and the attributes of comfort revealed in these data were analyzed. Finally, by summarizing the results from each case, the attributes of comfort, its dimension, definition, and processes observed in the field were suggested. According to the results of the study, the following new definition of comfort is suggested : Comfort is a subjective experience of all human beings and active process pursuing integrity in cognitive threat and psycho social and physical stable state which each individual can act on free will through experience that strengthen his/her adaptation process. Comfort accompany such subconcepts; ease, relaxation, satisfaction, newness, hope, confidence, stability and hardeness.
Comparison of Influential Variables for Smoking Temptation between Adolescent and Adult Smokers Chang, Sung Ok1)․Kim, Eun Ju2)․Seomun, Gyeong-Ae1)․Lee, Su Jeong3)․Park, Chang Seung4) 1) College of Nursing, Korea University, 2) Department of Nursing, Hanseo University 3) Department of Nursing, Kukdong University, 4) Department of Nursing, Halla College Purpose: This study attempted to identify influential variables on smoking temptation between groups: adolescent smokers and adult smokers. Method: A survey was conducted with 376 adolescent smokers in 4 high schools and 451 adult smokers in community settings in South Korea. Univariate statistics and regression were used for data analysis. Result: The most powerful predictor of smoking temptation for adolescent smokers was nicotine dependency. On the other hand, the most powerful predictor of smoking temptation for adult smokers was self-efficacy for smoking abstinence. In the high smoking temptation group, depression and nicotine dependency were the predictors for smoking temptation for adolescent smokers and nicotine dependency and pros for smoking were the predictors for smoking temptation for adult smokers. In the low smoking temptation group, cons for smoking and process of change for smoking abstinence were the predictors on smoking temptation for adolescent smokers and self-efficacy for smoking abstention and pros for smoking were the predictors on smoking temptation for adult smokers. Conclusion: There were different influential variables on smoking temptation according to age groups and level of smoking temptation. Smoking-cessation interventions should be tailored to the level of smoking temptation of the individual smokers.