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Pectin is a natural polysaccharide and biopolymer that serves as a structural component of plant tissues’ primary cell walls. Pectin is primarily composed of D-galacturonic acid linked by α-1, 4-glycosidic linkage and is further classified by the ratio of esterified galacturonic acid groups known as degree of esterification (DE). Pectin that contains more than half of its carboxylate units as methyl esters is known as a high methyl (HM) ester. Conversely, pectin that has less than half of its carboxylate units as methyl esters is known as a low methyl (LM) ester. Pectin has various bioactive properties, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticholesterol, antitumoral, and chemopreventive properties. Moreover, pectin is a useful biopolymer in biomedical applications. Biomedical engineering, which is founded on research aimed to improve the quality of life using new materials and technologies, is typically classified according to the use of hydrogels, nanofiber mats, and nanoparticles. This paper reviews the progress of recent research into pectin-based biomedical applications and the potential future biomedical applications of marine-derived pectin.
표준 단일모드 광섬유를 전송선으로 사용하고, Raman 증폭기 없이 EDFA 증폭기만을 사용하여, 각 채널당 10 Gb/s의 파장다중화된 40개 채널신호들을 장거리 전송하는 경제적인 광 링크를 구성한 뒤, 이 링크의 전송 성능 최적화를 위해 분산 맵 구조의 차이에 따른 성능 차이를 분석하였다. 이 링크의 분산 맵은 전치분산보상, 구간분산보상 그리고 후치분산보상으로 나누어지는데 이들의 다양한 조합을 통해 15 가지의 다양한 분산 맵들을 구성한 뒤 각각의 경우를 분석하여 링크 성능을 크게 향상시키는 최적화된 분산맵 구조를 구하였다. 또한, 이 최적화된 분산 조건이, 단일모드 광섬유와 분산보상 광섬유가 가지는 파장에 따른 분산 기울기의 불일치로 인해 받게 되는 영향을 조사하였고, 이 영향이 링크의 성능에 미치는 효과가 무시될 수 있는 분산 기울기의 허용 가능한 불일치 범위를 구했다. We have studied the dispersion properties of a 40 channel x 10 Gbit/s wavelength division multiplexer(WDM) transmission link using standard single mode fiber with all EDFA amplification over 30 x 100 km spans. The dispersion map of the link was investigated by adding fiber sections with positive or negative dispersion at the transmitter, within each amplifier span, and at the receiver. Optimum combinations of these dispersive fiber lengths were attained to significantly enhance the overall transmission performance.
Experimental investigation and cycle simulation of a capacity modulation of a heat pump system using a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant mixture, R32/134a as an alternative to R22, have been done. In the cycle simulation, the refrigeration system was operated by assigning the temperatures of the external heat transfer fluids with the heat exchangers generalized by an average effective temperature difference. Heating capacity, cooling capacity, and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system were investigated at several operating conditions. Experimental apparatus which had a refrigeration part and a composition changing part was built, and the performance of the heat pump system filled with R32/134a mixture was investigated. A gas-liquid separator was used in the experiment to change the composition by collecting the vapor and the liquid Phase separately, The mass fraction of the charged refrigerant in the heat pump system was 40/60 and 70/30 by weight percentage. The composition of the refrigerant with initial composition of 40/60 varied from 29/71 to 41/59 in the refrigeration cycle. For the refrigerant with initial composition of 70/30, the composition varied from 65/35 to 75/25.
An experimental study has been performed to develop a scheme for fault detection and diagnosis(FDD) in a vapor compression refrigeration system. This study is to analyze fault effect on the system performance and to find efficient diagnosis rules for easy determination of abnormal system operation. The refrigeration system was operated with a variable speed compressor to modulate cooling capacity. The FDD system was designed to consider transient load conditions. Four major faults were considered, and each fault was detected over wide operating load range by separating the system response to the load change. Rule-based method was used to diagnose and classify the system faults. From the experimental results, COP degradation due to the faults in a variable speed system is severer than that in a constant speed system. The method developed in this study can be used in the fault detection of refrigeration systems with a variable speed compressor.