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Hong, Sung-Hoon. 2005. An Optimality Theoretic Analysis of English Blends. Korean Journal of Linguistics, 30-3, 551-582. The primary goal of this paper is to show that blending in English is not random but linguistically governed. Specifically, this paper describes the prominent properties of English blends and provides their OT accounts. The properties to be examined are, among others, clipping and/or overlapping of the base words, the points at which clipping occurs (or the "switch points") and misalignment of the switch points with respect to the expected boundaries. To account for these properties, this paper first proposes a general blending model in OT in which output-to- output correspondence between the base words and the resulting blend word is posited. The properties of blends are then explained as the results of the interaction of a set of phonologically defined constraints and correspondence constraints.
This paper explores ways of quantifying wellformedness based on Information Theoretic concepts such as Phonological Complexity (PC) and Mutual Information (MI). Goldsmith (2001, 2006b) proposed that as the wellformedness of a representation increases, PC, which is computed from the probabilities of component unigrams and bigrams, becomes lower; and MI, which is a measure of interdependence of a bigram, becomes higher. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether this correlation holds for hiatus resolution in Korean, which has been thought to occur to avoid marked VV sequences. The statistical analyses of the full and "resolved" forms show that PC does not significantly differ in all the types of hiatus resolution, but that the differences of MI are significant in all the examples, suggesting that at least for hiatus resolution in Korean, MI is a better measure for wellformedness.
A fluidized bed drying approach was utilized to the synthesis of water glass based silica aerogel powders. The effects of the fluidized bed drying conditions such as the superficial velocity and temperature of hot air and bead size as well as bead/wet-gel ratio, on the physical properties such as tapping density and productivity of the aerogel powders were systematically investigated. The experimental results showed that the amount of beads mixed with wet-gels in the fluidized bed column has the most profound impact on the fluidization efficiency, greatly enhancing the yield of the aerogel powders up to 98% with a proper bead/wet-gel weight ratio as compared to 72% without using beads. No significant change was observed in the tapping density over a wide range of the fluidized drying condition. Consequently the fluidized bed drying approach shows a good promise as an alternative route for the large-scale production of the aerogel powders.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an effective method for delivering enteral nutrition to patients with dysphagia, cerebrovascular accidents, Parkinsonnism, dementia, and head and neck cancer. PEG is generally regarded as safe and it is associated with low risks of morbidity and mortality. The complications of the PEG are known to be mostly minor and they include wound infection, gastric leakage, bleeding, ileus, pneumoperitoneum and aspiration pneumonia. We recently experienced a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the left gastric artery, which was occurred as a complication during PEG insertion in a 73-year-old female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in Korea about successful angiographic embolization for a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the left gastric artery and this was associated with a PEG procedure. 경피 내시경하 위루술(percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, PEG)은 연하곤란, 뇌졸중, 파킨슨씨병, 치매, 두경부 악성종양 환자에게 경장영양을 공급할 수 있는 효과적인 방법이다. PEG 시술은 일반적으로 이환율과 사망률이 낮은 안전한 시술로 알려져 있다. PEG 시술의 알려진 합병증들은 주로 경증으로 창상감염, 소구누출, 출혈, 장마비, 기복증, 흡인성 폐렴 등이 있다. 저자들은 73세 여자에서 PEG 시술 후 좌위동맥 가성동맥류 파열을 경험하여 보고하며, PEG 시술과 동반된 혈관파열에 대한 성공적인 혈관색전술을 기술한 국내 최초 보고라는데 의의가 있다.
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Treaty shopping refers to a situation in which an individual or a company that is not eligible for the benefits of a tax treaty uses an intermediary entity that is eligible for such benefits to obtain these benefits indirectly. This paper examines treaty shopping with a gametheoretic model in a network of tax treaties. An investor can choose an investment route across national borders to minimize tax while a tax agency can choose to audit the investor to find out the route. The audit is costly but it can give additional revenue to the tax agency if it reveals that the investor chose an indirect route for tax avoidance. I analyze the equilibrium of this model and calculate tax revenue loss due to treaty shopping. I also examine the structure of tax-minimizing investment routes in a real-world network of tax treaties between selected countries. While about 75 percent of tax-minimizing indirect routes pass through countries with no withholding tax, about 21 percent of tax-minimizing indirect routes pass through countries with tax treaty networks favorable to certain residence countries. Network centrality measures are introduced to assess the role of pass-through countries.To prevent treaty shopping countries may amend tax treaties with possible pass-through countries.
Background: Bisphosphonate is used in osteoporosis treatment to repress osteoclast activity, which then decreases levels of osteocalcin (OC). OC, a protein secreted by osteo-blasts and released from the bone matrix during osteoclastic bone resorption, has been found to control blood glucose levels by increasing insulin production and sensitivity. The question addressed in this study is whether decreasing OC through bisphosphonate treatment will provoke a change in glucose homeostasis. Methods: Eighty-four patients with osteoporosis were treated with once-weekly risedronate 35 mg and cholecalciferol 5,600 IU. We measured fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and undercarboxylated (Glu) and carboxylated (Gla) OC levels at baseline and after 16 weeks. To estimate insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function (B)%, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR and HOMA-B% were also calculated, respectively. Results: The mean FPG level in total sub -jects increased significantly from 5.3 to 5.5 mmol/L, but no changes in blood glucose were noted in the 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose. Glu and Gla OC levels de-clined significantly after treatment. No correlations were observed between changes in OC and changes in glucose, however. Conclusions: Bisphosphonate treatment for os-teoporosis reduced OC, but this change was not associated with changes in glucose me-tabolism.
최근 저독성 고에너지 이온성 액체로 Ammonium Dinitramide(ADN) 기반의 액상 단일추진제가 주목 받고 있다. ADN 기반 추진제는 기존 추진제로 사용되는 하이드라진 및 과산화수소에 비해 낮은 독성, 고비추력, 저민감성 및 저장성 등에서 우수한 장점을 지니고 있다. 그러나 ADN 기반 추진제는 수분의 함량이 높아 촉매 분해가 필수적이다. 또한 실제 추진기관 내부의 온도는 1000 °C ~ 1300 °C 이므로 고온에서 내구성을 지니고 비표면적 및 활성을 유지 할 수 있는 촉매가 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 고내열성 촉매로 잘 알려진 Hexaaluminat를 공침법을 통해 제조하고 물리화학적 특성을 분석하였다. Constant volume reactor에서 ADN 기반 추진제의 촉매 분해 현상을 분석하였다.