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Nonoperative residual biliary stone removal through the T-tube sinus tract was performed in 9 patients by using steerable catheter and basket under fluroscopic guidance and the result was satisfactory. There is no significant complication or morbidity. We concluded that this method is 1. easy of performance, highly successiful and of no demonstrable risk. 2. can be performed without ay medication and in out-patient department. 3. the method of choice of treatment in post-op residual biliary stone with T-tube.
Studies on effect of Decyl alcohol EC and Butralin EC on tobacco sucker control were conducted in the tobacco field of Agro-tech Research Group of KT&G Central Research Institute, in 2004. Control effects of two chemicals were highest at the sucker length of 1$1\~2cm$. This indicates that the first application of Decyl alcohol should be conducted before button stage in the flue-cured and at the button stage in the burley tobacco. Effects of Decyl alcohol and Butralin on sucker control were $89.6\%\;and\;90.7\%$, respectively at 14 days after application in the variety KF118. But that of sequential application of two chemicals was $81.9\%$ at 30 days after application in the variety KF118 and $86.1\%$ in the variety KB303. Effect of two applications of Yellow ribbon or Butralin was highest in two varieties. The central downward spray showed a little higher control effect than the pouring of two chemicals. There was not significant difference of sucker control effect between forty and fifty times solution of Decyl alcohol in the variety KB303.
1993~1999년에 인삼 포장 내 약제 사용을 최대한 줄일 수 있는 해충과 쥐의 방제법을 연구하였다. 인삼포장에서 참검정풍뎅이 성충을 방제하는데 있어 약제를 산란기에 포장 주변에 처리하는 것은 인삼포장 내 처리와 동일한 방제 효과를 보였다. 땅강아지 성충 피해는 약제를 포장 주변에 처리하였을 때 뚜렷이 감소하였다. 누런방아벌레 유충은 포장 내에 감자를 묻을 경우 효과적으로 유인되었다. 가루깍지벌레는 포장 내에서의 확산이 매우 늦어 발생 초기에 효과적으로 방제할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. 쥐의 피해는 포장 내에 지진파를 발생하는 쥐퇴치기를 설치후 정지되 었다. Non-chemical or low-chemical control measures against key insect pests and rats in the ginseng field were studied from 1993 through 1999. Broadcasting chemicals beside the ginseng field in the oviposition period showed the same control effect on the adults of the Korean black chafer, Holotrichia diomphalia, as broadcasting at the ginseng ridge. Ginseng damage by adults of African mole cricket, Gryl1ota1pa africana, were reduced considerably by broadcasting chemicals beside the ginseng field. The larvae of wheat wireworm, Ectinus sericeus, were attracted effectively to potatoes in the ginseng field. Spreads of the mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki, were very slow in the ginseng field, indicating that it is possible to eradicate the early colonies of Pseudococcus comstocki effectively. The rat repeller, Dekur a significant control effect of rats in the ginseng field.
Repellencies of herb plants and essential oils against alate Myzus persicae were investigated in a insect cage, a screen house, and a tobacco field. Numbers of nymphs deposited by alate or apterous Myzur persicae were lower on rosemary(Rosmarinus officinalis), silver thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and lemon balm(Melissa of fcianazis). Rosemary and silver thyme show little repellency against alate Myzus persicae on a nearby tobacco plant Rosemary oil, peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil, and ginger oil showed repellency against alate Myzus persicae, but spearmint (Mentha spicata) oil and lavender oil showed little repellency in a screen house. Rosemary oil, ginger oil, peppermint oil, lavender oil, and spearmint oil showed repellency against alate Myzus persicae in a tobacco field, but there was no significant difference among oils.
phenological study on the oviposition, emergence, and flight activity of the African mole cricket adult has been made to obtain basic information for management of pest populations in ginseng fields. The flight activity, as monitored by the blarklight trap, seemed to be initiated depending on the sunset time and lasted about 2-2.5 hours. The trap data (1984-1988) showed that the adult flight of the species occurred twice a year, from early May to late June(Spring flight) and from late August to mid October(Fall flight) during which usually more crickets were trapped than during the former period. The number of females trapped was greater than that of males regardless to the flight period, i.e., females comprised 72.2%, 83.9%, and 73.3% of the total catches in 1984, 1985, and 1986, respectively. Adults emerged from late August to mid October and laid eggs from mid May to mid July the next year, indicating that the spring and fall flights correspond to the oviposition and emergence period, respectively.
1986~1990년에 3년근 인삼포장에서 참검정풍뎅이 유충에 의한 춘기 피해 양상을 조사한 결과 인삼포장의 바깥쪽일수록 피해가 심하였는데 이는 참검정풍뎅이 자성충의 dirks 이동 습성 때문으로 보인다. 3령 유충에 의한 3년근 인삼의 피해부는 뿌리 동례의 상부, 중부, 하부 또는 뿌리 전체였으며 드물게 지하부 줄게에도 피해가 있었다. 섭식기 3령층의 평균 서식 깊이는 인삼 유묘, 2년근, 3년근, 쑥에서 각각 3.2cn, 5.6cm, 6.6cm, 4.9cm 였다. 춘기의 참검정풍뎅이 유충에 의한 인삼의 피해는 주러 5월 중순에서 7월 상순에 발생하였고 강우량이 증가할 경우 피해가 일시적으로 감소하는 것으로 보였다. Patterns of ginseng damage by larvae of Holotrichia diomphalia Bates in spring were investigated in 3rd year ginseng fields from 1986 to 1990. Ginseng damages were more serious in outer areas than inner areas of ginseng fields, which seemed to be due to nocturnal migration behavior of adult females. Damaged parts of 3rd year ginseng plants due to 3rd instar larvae were top, middle, bottom or whole of main roots, and rarely underground stems. Mean inhabitation depth of 3rd instar larvae were 3.2cm, 5.6cm, 6.6cm and 4.9cm in 1st, 2nd and 3rd year ginseng fields and mugwort fields, respectively. Larval feeding damage of ginseng in spring oc¬curred mainly from mid-May to early July and appeared to decrease temporarily when rainfalls increased.
Sixty nine patients of malignant tumors of the maxillary sinuses were treated at the Yonsei Cancer Center from January 1977 to March 1978 by CO-60 teletherapy unit. We analysed their clinical findings, histopathological findings, clinical staging, treatment and results. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio was 3:1. The most prevalent age group was in fifth, sixth and seventh decades (82.6%). 2. Histpathologically, squamous cell carinoma occurred most frequently which was 53 in 69 patients (76.8%). Lymphoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were 3 patients (4.3%) respectively. 3. Maxillary swelling was most frequent clinical manifestation and can be seen in 50 out of 69 patients (72.5%). 4. Clinical staging according to TNM system proposed by Sisson can be done in 49 patients. Majority of patients were T-3 and T-4 and occupied 83.7% (41/49). According to Ohngren's line, tumor locating in infrastracture were 33 patients and in suprastructure 16 patients. 5. Among 69 pa ients, 59 patients were treated by radiation only, 5 patients were sugery plus radiation and 5 patients by chemotherapeutic infusion plus radiation. 6. In 31 patients who might be passed 5 years after treatment, follow up can be done in only 13 patients. 10 patients were treated by radiation only and 3 patients by surgery plus radiation. Presumed 5 year survival rate was 3/10 (30%) in patients with radiaton only and 2/3 (66.7%) in patients with surgery plus radiation. Among 13 patients, 5 patients occurred in infrastructure and 5 patients in suprastructure. Mean survival months of patient with infrastructure were 49 months and suprastructure were 31.8 months.
The development of new imaging technologies and advances in heath care awareness have resulted in increased detection of thyroid nodules as compared with past clinical examinations. It is very important to manage thyroid incidentalomas, as the incidence of clinically manifested thyroid cancer and the rate of mortality due to thyroid cancer are low as compared with the high prevalence of thyroid nodules. In this study, we reviewed the definition, incidence, detection methods and treatment of thyroid incidentalomas. 최근 일반 국민들 사이에 건강에 대한 인식의 고조와 영상학적 진단기기의 발전으로 갑상선 결절의 발견에 획기적인 진전을 이루었고 과거에 임상적인 방법에 의한 고식적인 발견율을 뛰어 넘어 현저한 증가를 보이게 되었다. 이와 같은 갑상선 결절의 높은 유병률에 비해 임상적으로 발현되는 갑상선 암의 빈도는 낮으며, 갑상선 암으로 인한 사망률 또한 매우 낮아, 우연히 발견된 갑상선 결절을 어떻게 다루어야 할 지가 중요한 문제로 대두되었다. 이 종설은 갑상선 우연종의 정의,빈도, 진단방법, 그리고 치료에 대한 지침에 대해 고찰하였다.