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The objective of this study was to investigate age difference in the processing of category label information. Three age groups in children and one adult age group were used to investigate the amounts of recall of items by age, priming and category typicality. The more the age, the more the amount of recall of items, and typical items were recalled to a great extent than atypical items,. Primed items were recalled much more than unprimed items. Priming effect in 3 older groups were significant but in kindergarten group not significant. In primed condition typical items were recalled more than atypical items, but in unprimed condition there is no typicality effect. There is no 3-way interaction effect by age, priming, and typicality. The major interest of this study was to investigate whether there is the ge difference in the processing of category label information when age difference of internal structure of category and stimulus encoding time is controlled. The results of this study mean that when age difference of knowledge basis and other variable is controlled the age difference is occurred by priming or not priming but there is no age difference in the processing of typicality. The results were discussed in therms of self-generating category representation and the number of the exemplar of the related category as a dimension of categorical processing of priming and typicality
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the age and category typicality on the complementary condition and the contrastive condition in preschool children' s classification. Total 80 subjects (boys and girls, and four-year and five-year old) were used for this study. In the results of this study, four-year old children showed the positive polarization on the atypical exemplars in the contrastive condition. There was not any significant typicality effect on the complementary condition and the contrastive condition in five-year old children. The implications of the effects of the age, the category tipicality, and the conditions of stimulus presentation were discussed.
This study investigated the effect of 1) the typicality of category exemplar which represented category, 2) the arrangement of category and 3) the typicality of category exemplar which are to be classified in classification behavior. Subjects were in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. The typicality of category exemplar consists of high level typicality and mixed level typicality. High level condition of typicality of category exemplar showed higher correct response rate in conceptual classification than mixed condition. But this variable did not interact with other variables. In typical conditions of classification stimuli, there are not significant difference of correct response rate between two conditions of arrangement of category(contrastive condition versus complementary condition). In atypical condition of classification stimuli, the correct response rate are different between two conditions. The pattern of interaction in 3-year-olds is different from 4-and 5-year-olds, but conversely, contrasive condition facilitated conceptual classification than complementary condition in 4-and 5-year-olds. The implication of this study is that meaningful transition of conceptual structure might be between 3-year-olds and 4-year-olds.
본 연구에서 다문화 가정에 있어서 남편의 성역할 고정관념, 다문화 감수성, 그리고 아내문화수용이 결혼이주여성의 문화적응과 결혼 및 삶의 만족에 대해 미치는 영향을 검토하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 대상은 대구경북지역의 다문화가정의 부부 100쌍이었으며 남편 평균 연령은 41.6세, 아내 평균 연령은 29.6세이었다. 결혼이주여성의 국적은 주로 베트남과 중국이었다. 주요 결과를 보면, 첫째, 남편의 성역할 고정관념, 다문화 감수성, 아내문화수용의 세 변인은 아내의 문화적응의 네 하위 요인(통합, 동화, 분리, 주변화) 중 주변화에 대해서만 유의하게 설명하였다. 둘째, 남편의 이들 세 변인 중 아내문화수용만 아내의 결혼만족과 삶의 만족을 각각 유의하게 설명하였다. 셋째, 아내 문화적응의 네 하위유형 중 주변화는 아내의 결혼 및 삶의 만족을 유의하게 설명하였고, 통합은 삶의 만족만 유의하게 설명하였다. 남편의 성역할고정관념은 아내문화수용 및 다문화감수성과 부적 상관을 보였다. 아내의 문화적응 중 동화는 통합과 약한 정적 상관, 주변화와는 중간정도의 부적 상관을 보였다. 본 연구의 의의는 결혼이주여성의 결혼 만족 및 삶의 만족은 남편의 이문화 이해를 비롯한 남편관련 변인에 의한 문화적응의 영향을 받는다는 것을 밝힘으로써 개인의 문제가 아닌 다문화적 관점에서 접근해야 할 문제임을 인식시켜주었다는 점이다. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of husbands` sex role stereotype, intercultural sensitivity, and the acceptance of wife`s culture on immigrant women`s acculturation, marital satisfaction and life satisfaction in multi-cultural family in Korea. The data of 100 immigrant women and their husbands were analyzed. Husbands` mean age was 41.6 and wifes` mean age was 29.6. The results of this study are as follows. The first, husbands` sex role stereotype, intercultural sensitivity and the acceptance of wives` culture together explain only marginalization among wives` acculturation(integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization) significantly, but individual variable`s effect was not significant. The second, husbands` acceptance of wives` culture explain marital and life satisfaction significantly. Third, only marginalization among four types of acculturation explain significantly marital and life satisfaction significantly. integration explain only life satisfaction significantly. Husbands`` sex role stereotype is related with the acceptance of their wives` culture and their intercultural sensitivity negatively. In wives` acculturation, there is low positive correlation between assimilation and integration and moderate negative correlation between assimilation and marginalization. This study revealed that the marital and life satisfaction of immigrant women in intercultural family in Korea are explained by acculturation which was influenced by their husband`s acceptance of wives` culture and they are not only immigrant wife`s problem but multicultural problem.
본 연구에서는 영아의 대상영속성의 발달적 변화를 종단적 설계를 통해 살펴보았으며, 대상영속성과 모가 지각한 탐색행동, 인지능력 및 환경적 변인들 간의 상관을 알아보았다. 본 연구의 피험자는 412명의 영아와 어머니이었으며, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11개월에 걸쳐 관찰하였다. 부분 숨기기 과제에 의한 대상 영속성은 6개월에서 9개월 사이에서 점진적으로 발달하였으며 9개월에서 완성되었다. 완전 숨기기 과제에 의한 대상영속성은 8개월에서 10개월까지 점진적으로 발달하였으며 10개월에서 완성되었으나 8, 9, 10개월에는 부분 숨기기 과제의 점수가 완전 숨기기 과제의 점수보다 높았고, 11개월이 되어서야 두 과제에 따른 대상영속성 점수에 차이가 없어졌다. 따라서 통합적으로 볼 때, 11개월이 되어서야 위치이동이 없는 대상영속성이 완성된다고 보인다. 각 개월의 대상영속성 간의 상관을 보면, 6, 8개월에서보다 9, 10, 11개월에서의 대상영속성 점수 간의 상관이 높은 경향이 있었는데, 월령이 증가할수록 대상영속성 개념의 발달이 안정성을 보인다고 볼 수 있다. 대상영속성의 총점은 탐색행동 및 인지능력과 정적 상관이 있었고, 탐색행동과 인지능력 간에도 정적 상관이 있었다. 대상영속성과 환경적 변인과 드물게 정적 상관이 있었고, 탐색행동은 환경적 변인과 상관이 없었으며 인지능력은 여러 환경적 변인들과 유의미한 정적 상관이 있었다. In this study, the developmental change of object permanence and and its correlation with exploration behavior, cognitive ability perceived by mothers and environmental variables, were investigated through longitudinal design. Subjects were 412 infants and their mothers. Infants were observed when they were 6, 8, 9, 10, and 11-month-old in their home environment. The object permanence by partial occlusion tasks developed progressively from 6-month-old infants to 9-month-old infants. There was not any progression from 9-month-old infants. The object permanence by complete occlusion tasks developed progressively from 8-month-old infants to 10-month-old infants and there was not significant progression from 10-month-old infants. However, The scores from partial occlusion tasks were higher than the scores from complete occlusion tasks in 8, 9, 10-month-old infants and there was no difference between them in 11-month-old infants. According to these results, we can conclude that the object permanence without displacement is completed by 11-month-old infants. The correlation between the scores of object permanence for 6- and 8-month-old and subsequent scores is lower than between the scores of objects permanence for 9-, 10-, and 11-month-old infants. From these results, it can be interpreted that the reliability of object permanence is acquired when infants are 9-month-old. The total scores of object permanence is correlated positively with exploration behavior and cognitive ability, and there is also positive correlation between exploration behavior and cognitive ability. There were scarce positive correlations between objective permanence and environmental variables and also between exploration behavior and environmental variables. However, there was positive correlation between cognitive ability and environmental variables.
In the present study, category typicality judgment norms from 14 Korean natural language categories are presented for kindergraten, third-grade, sixth-grade, and college students. Subjects are first asked whether the presented exemplars are included as category members and rated them on a 3-point scale in terms of category typicality. The percentages of items included are increased with both age and typicality level increasis and age differences in the percentage of items included as category members were found primarily for the less typical items. The absolute level of typicality judgments increased with age, although correlation between the children's and college student's ratings were somewhat higher than the unadjustd. It was suggested that the present typicality norms would be useful to developmental investigation in children's processing of category information in Korea and to investigation of developmental feature of the internal structure of category and the principles of categorization.
본 연구의 첫째 목적은 6개월 영아의 시각적 재인기억이 17개월 영아의 전반적 지능을 예언할 수 있는지를 검토하는 것이었다. 둘째 목적은 17개월 이전에 측정된 대상영속성 및 모방과 같은 특수 인지능력들과 인구통계학적 변인들이 17개월 영아의 지능을 예측할 수 있는지를 검토하고자 하는 것이었다. 재인기억은 친숙화-새로운 자극 선호 절차를 통한 신기성 비율로서 측정하였다. 17개월 영아의 전반적 지능(IQ)을 측정하는 데에는 CAS-2를 사용하였다. 6개월 영아의 재인기억은 17개월의 전반적 지능과 유의한 상관이 있었다. 특수 인지 능력 중에서 15개월에 측정된 대상 영속성 점수, 그리고 9개월과 11개월에 측정된 모방 점수만 전반적 지능과의 상관이 유의하였다. 그 외에 인구통계학적 변인은 전반적 지능과의 상관은 유의하지 않았다. 본 연구에서 무엇보다도 6개월과 같은 초기의 지표 중에서 재인기억만이 17개월의 지능을 예측할 수 있음을 보여 주었다. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the prediction of 17-month-old infants` global intelligence from 6-month-old infants` visual recognition memory and specific cognitive abilities. The secondary purpose was to investigate whether specific cognitive abilities such as object permanence and imitative ability as well as demographic variables can contribute to the prediction of 17-month-old infants` global intelligence. Recognition memory was meant to be the novelty rate which was measured by a familiarization-novel stimulus preference procedure. 17-month-old infants` global intelligence was measured by means of CAS-2(Cognitive Ability Scale-2). The recognition memory of 6-month-old infants was significantly correlated with 17-month-old infants` global intelligence. 17-month-old infants` global intelligence was shown to have a significant correlation with the object permanence measured at 15 months old, and with imitative ability at 9-, 11-months old, respectively. Moreover, demographic variable was not significantly correlated with 17-month-old infants` global intelligence. It is noteworthy in this study that 17-month-old infants` global intelligence was predictable only through recognition memory which was the one and only variable among various variables measured at a relative early age around 6 months old.
The generality and the specificity of the development of conceptual organization were investigated between Korean and Japanese children. In experiment 1, four- and 7-year-old children were presented a modified matching-to-sample task, in which one of three classification basis(thematic, categorical, and color) was demanded by task. Generally, younger children performed easily in thematic basis condition, and older children in comparison to younger children had flexibility in utilization of three kind of conceptual organization in both cultures. The difference between two cultures was that Korean younger children had more scores in thematic basis condition than in categorical basis condition, but Japanese younger children had similar scores between thematic and categorical basis condition. In experiment 2, free verbal responses were investigated by thematic basis and categorical basis condition in 4-, 5-, and 7-year-olds. Correct response in thematic basis condition became low generally in three ages in both cultures. Korean children showed dominance in thematic basis condition in comparison to Japanese children. The results of dominance in thematic basis condition in Korean children were consistent with the result of a previous cross-cultural study of Korean and Japanese children in which free world association was used. Korean children were interpreted as situation-oriented or context-oriented.