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The purpose of this study was a critical review and analysis of the literature which related to a classification behavior. The trends in this previous studies in the classification were divided into a perceptual-conceptual shift and a thematic-conceptual shift in this study. The results of the studies which have investigated a perceptual-conceptual shift and a thematic-conceptual shift were inconsistent. This inconsistency of the results of previous studies was attributed to differences in the variables as follows: 1) classification style, 2) motivation of performance in a task, 3) instructions, 4) contrasted dimensions, 5) stimuli. Finally, developmental trends in classification are described by integration of the results of studies of a perceptual-conceptual shift and a thematic-conceptual shift. There are age trends as follows: a reliance on a color basis and a thematic basis appeared in the early preschool years; a reliance on form or other perceptual similarity appeared in the end of preschool years; and, finally, conceptual or categorical basis appeared in the middle of the elementary school years.
This study investigated the effect of 1) the typicality of category exemplar which represented category, 2) the arrangement of category and 3) the typicality of category exemplar which are to be classified in classification behavior. Subjects were in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. The typicality of category exemplar consists of high level typicality and mixed level typicality. High level condition of typicality of category exemplar showed higher correct response rate in conceptual classification than mixed condition. But this variable did not interact with other variables. In typical conditions of classification stimuli, there are not significant difference of correct response rate between two conditions of arrangement of category(contrastive condition versus complementary condition). In atypical condition of classification stimuli, the correct response rate are different between two conditions. The pattern of interaction in 3-year-olds is different from 4-and 5-year-olds, but conversely, contrasive condition facilitated conceptual classification than complementary condition in 4-and 5-year-olds. The implication of this study is that meaningful transition of conceptual structure might be between 3-year-olds and 4-year-olds.
The objective of this study was to investigate age difference in the processing of category label information. Three age groups in children and one adult age group were used to investigate the amounts of recall of items by age, priming and category typicality. The more the age, the more the amount of recall of items, and typical items were recalled to a great extent than atypical items,. Primed items were recalled much more than unprimed items. Priming effect in 3 older groups were significant but in kindergarten group not significant. In primed condition typical items were recalled more than atypical items, but in unprimed condition there is no typicality effect. There is no 3-way interaction effect by age, priming, and typicality. The major interest of this study was to investigate whether there is the ge difference in the processing of category label information when age difference of internal structure of category and stimulus encoding time is controlled. The results of this study mean that when age difference of knowledge basis and other variable is controlled the age difference is occurred by priming or not priming but there is no age difference in the processing of typicality. The results were discussed in therms of self-generating category representation and the number of the exemplar of the related category as a dimension of categorical processing of priming and typicality