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고령자는 신체의 노화와 더불어 심리적으로 살고 있는 지역을 떠나기 싫어한다. 이를 ‘Aging in place'라 한다. 하지만 고령자가 많이 거주하고 있는 구도심은 지속적인 인구감소로 인해 도시의 주요한 기능이 점차 약화 되고 있으며, 이는 지역에서 살아가고자하는 즉, ‘Aging in place'를 선호하는 고령자의 삶의 질을 저하시킨다. 이에 본 연구에서는 고령자의 주거복지문제로 활성화되고 있는 고령자복지주택사업을 기반으로 고령자의 신체적·경제적·심리적·정서적 측면을 배려한 주택의 설계안을 제시하고자하였다. 고령자복지주택사업과 도시재생사업을 바탕으로 대상지를 선정하였으며, 지방도시 노후아파트에 거주하고 있는 고령자와의 인터뷰와 심층문답을 통해 대상지의 현황 파악 및 고령자가 거주하는 현 거주공간에 대한 문제점을 파악하였다. 이러한 문제점을 해결하기 위해 앞서 언급한 고령자복지주택사업과 도시재생사업의 일부 내용을 적극 활용하여 기초설계안을 도출 하였다. 그 결과 리모델링을 통해 고령자의 신체적 노화를 배려한 무장애 설계, 교류를 도와주는 사회적 공간, 여가생활을 즐길 수 있는 공간과 거주환경을 구현하여 설계안에 적용하였다. 제시한 설계안은 고령자의 ‘Aging in place'의 실현과 주거기능 강화로 도시기능이 약화된 기존 도심의 도시재생 측면에서도 매우 효과적인 설계안이라 사료 된다. 또한 이 연구는 앞으로 있을 고령자 복지주택 관련 정책 및 사업 또는 설계에 있어 보다 실질적이고 효과적인 방안이 될 것으로 판단된다. In general, elders are reluctant to leave their psychologically attached home as their bodies get older. This is called ‘Aging in place'. However, in the old center of the city where lots of elders live, they tend to suffer from gradually degraded main functions as a city due to a consistent decrease in the population, and it can degrade the quality of life for elders who prefer to live in those areas, in other words, ‘Aging in place'. Therefore in this study, the author aims to suggest a plan for designing houses that take into account the physical, psychological and emotional aspects of elders, based on the elderly welfare house projects that have been promoted as a countermeasure for housing welfare issues for elders. Candidates are selected based on the elderly welfare house projects and the urban regeneration projects and in depth interviews are performed on those elders living in old apartments located in the local cities in order to assess their status and also the existing problems for their current residential spaces. To derive a solution for these problems, as mentioned earlier, part of the contents of the elderly welfare houses projects and the urban regeneration projects are aggressively utilized, deriving a basic design plan. As a result, remodeling leading to barrier free design for the aging bodies of elders, social space helping exchanges, leisure spaces and residential are applied to a design plan. In a proposed design plan, an emphasis is made on elders'desires for ‘Aging in place' and strengthening the residential functions, thus it is regarded as a very effective design plan in terms of urban regeneration for the existing city center. In addition, it is expected that the research results will suggest a very effective and practical plan for elderly welfare houses related policies and projects or design in the future.
Aims : The purpose of this study was to explore the differences of general characteristics and nutritional factors such as anthropometry and dietary intake between alcohol-related cirrhosis and virus-related liver cirrhosis and to assess the nutritional status of both of these groups. Methods : In this study, the nutritional status of 67 patients with liver cirrhosis (25 with alcohol-related and 42 with virus-related) was evaluated by using clinical assessment, anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, and biochemical indices. Results : Although anthropometric measurements were not significantly different between alcoholic cirrhosis and viral cirrhosis, anthropometry of patients with viral cirrhosis had a higher tendency than that of alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Alcohol intake factors such as amount, duration, and frequency in alcoholic cirrhotic patients were higher than those in patients with viral cirrhosis. Energy excluding alcohol and vitamin C were significantly different between patients with alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. All subjects had lower intake of energy excluding alcohol, protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, and iron as than recommended by the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Koreans. Of special note was the fact that the intakes of energy excluding alcohol, vitamin A, riboflavin, and calcium were less than 75% of RDA for Koreans. Although the glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly different between alcoholic and viral cirrhotic patients, there were within normal range in both groups. There was an interaction effect in triceps skinfold thickness of the subjects according to both etiology and severity of liver disease. Conclusion : These data suggests that nutritional disorders are common in patients with both alcohol-and virus-related cirrhosis. It is necessary to educate patients with cirrhosis about the importance of a balanced dietary intake as well as its pattern, and quality of diet. (Korean J Hepatol 2000;6:59-72)
In order evaluate th optimum utilization efficiency of animal protein in growing weanling rats and chicks, an experiment of feeding them with mixed food of fish and soybean meals as animal and vegetable protein sources, respectively, with defferent combinations was performed, and were obtained the following results: (1) The most body weight gain of female rats was observed in case of diets comprising 25% soybean and 75% fish meal (VP 25 + AP 75) and also comprising pure fish meal (VP 0 + AP 100) whereas the diets (VP 50 + AP 50) and (VP 75 + AP25) gave the most body weight gain of male rats, the latter diet also resulting in teh same with chicks. (2) Food efficiency ratio is decreasing in the order of chicks> male rats > female rats, and their most efficient ratios are found in the diets of (VP 0 + AP 100), (VP 75 + AP 25) and (VP 25 + AP 75), respectively. (3) The protein efficiency ratios of chicks, male and female rats are in the same order as the above food efficiency ratio, and their highest values are found in the diets of (VP 25 + AP 75), (VP 75 + AP 25) and (VP 25 + AP 75), respectively. Thus consistent results are found among the body weight gain, food and protein efficiency ratios of rats whereas no consistency is found among those of chicks. (4) The best combination ratio of soybean and fish meals seems to be variable depending on teh sex and kind of animals, and the best diets for female and male rats and chicks are found to be (VP 25 + AP 75), (VP 75 + AP 25), respectively.
In order to investigate the effect of dietary protein and energy on growing female and male rats, Sprague-Dawley 90 female rats and 54 male rats of 3 weeks old weighing approximately 70-80 g and 65-75 g, respectively, were subjected to feeding trials for 8 weeks and then subsequently to metabolic trials for 2 weeks. Three dietary energy levels (3200, 3600, 4000kcal ME/kg) were employed and each energy level contained three protein levels (15, 25, 35% of 3600kcal ME/kg) and three fat levels (10, 20, 40% of 3600 kcal ME/kg) by addition of an appropriate amount of carbohydrate and the following results were obtained. (1) The body weight gain of female rats was highest for LPHE ration but that of male rats was highest for LPME ration. The weight gains both of female and male rats were not affected by the level of protein. Food effeciencies both of female and male rats were improved as the levels of energy increased, and the food efficiency of female rats was affected by the level of protein, whereas that of male rats was not. Protein efficiencies of female and male rats were highest at low protein level and tended to decrease as the level of protein increased, but that of female rats was highest at high energy level, while that of male rats was highest at medium energy level. (2) According to the analysis of blood serum after feeding trials for 8 weeks, the content of serum glucose of female rats has shown no definite trend by protein and energy levels. However, that of male rats increased as protein level increased but has not shown a trend as energy level increased. The serum protein contents both of female and male rats were not affected by protein level, but that of female rats incrased slightly as energy level increased, whereas that of male rats was not influenced by energy level. The serum urea nitrogen contents both of female and male rats increased as protein level increased but, as energy level increased, that of female rats decreased while that of male rats has not shown a definite trend. The contents of serum cholesterol both of female and male rats have shown the lowest value at high energy level. The content of serum triglyceride of female rats trended to decrease as protein level increased, but that of male rats has shown to be lowest at protein level. From the above-mentioned experimental results it may be concluded that the best formula of diet of growing female rats may be composed of low protein (13%) and high energy levels (4000 kcal/kg) whereas that for male rats may be composed of low protein (13%) and medium energy levels (3600 kcal/kg), since all the efficiencies of food, protein and energy have shown to be best at these levels. Blood composition of female rats at LPHE ration ; serum glucose : 147.20mg/100ml, serum protein; 9.92mg/100ml, serum urea nitrogen ; 8.41mg/100ml, serum cholesterol ; 52.95mg/100ml, serum triglyceride : 137.83mg/100ml. Blood composition of male rats at LPME ration ; serum glucose: 182.18mg/100ml, serum protein ; 11.81mg/100ml, serum urea nitrogen ; 11.94mg/100ml, serum cholesterol ; 83.08mg/100ml, serum triglyceride ; 167.58mg/100ml.
Most Cancers in man are caused by environmental factors. It is rather surprising that wide spread interest in the role of human diet in cancer etiology has developed recently, since the ingestion is such an obivous route for carciongens or their precursors to enter the body. In this review, attention will focus on the relationships between nutrients in diet and cancer, especially the influence of nutrients on cancers. 1) The inhibitory effects of caloric restriction could be due to a lack of energy for either tumorigenesis or mitosis of latent cancer cells. However, severe caloric restriction is not a practical method for the prevention of human cancer. 2) High protein diet increases the incidence of the [spontaneous tumors. But it has protective effect from incidence of cancer with dietary manipulation or chemically induced cancer when caloric intakes are controlled to maintain the same body weights in animals. A critical decrease in protein reduces the incidence of cancer. 3) High fat diet may provide a suitable environment for developing latent tumor cell and spontaneous tumors. An increased level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum might inhibit the action of the immunological system to cancer and savor tumorigenesis. 4) Retinoids are most effective in inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis when administered shortly after carcinogen treatment. α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) has been known to be an effective naturally occuring antioxidant capable of providing protection to tissues from the damaging effects of feeding polyunsaturated fat. Ascorbic acid has been shown to effectively block this spontaneous conversion to nitrosamines from nitrites or nitrates in foods. Selenium has the chemopreventive ejection due to change of chemical carcinogen induced tumorigenesis metabolism. It is related to maintain high levels of glutathion peroxidase. 5) Dietary fiber can reduce contact between the bowel mucosa and a potential carcinogen, by diluting the intestinal contents and by decreasing transit time. It can adsorb potential carcinogens, making them less available It can also affect bacterial action on carcinogen precursors by these metabolisms.