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Ohmae-hwan has been used to treat the symptoms of loose stools mixed with blood accompanied by abdominal pain due to heat dysentery in Korean medicine. However, its mechanism of action on inflammatory disease using macrophages was not known. The author was to find out about the influence of Ohmae-hwan water extract on expressions of NO, cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell, on expressions of mRNA of iNOS, IL-6 and COX-2 and on suppression of expressions of protein of iNOS and COX-2, and was to find out about the mechanism. As a result of the study, it was found that Ohmae-hwan suppressed generation of NO activated by LPS depending on its concentrations, suppressed expressions of cytokine IL-6, and TNF-α and suppressed expressions of mRNA of iNOS, IL-6, and COX-2 and suppressed expressions of protein of iNOS, COX-2. Considering the above results, it can be known that Ohmae-hwan water extract has anti-inflammatory effect against inflammatory response mediated by macrophages by suppressing generation of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 and expressions of iNOS, COX-2 as it acts on macrophages.
Sung,Min,Kim,Eun,Jung,Yoon,Min,Sang,Kim,Ming,Li,Chang,Woo,Oh,Sung,Young,Lee,Kyoung,Hwan,Yeo,Sung,Hwan,Kim,Dong,Uk,Choe,Sung,Dae,Suk,Dong-Won,Kim,Donggun,Park 대한전자공학회 2006 Journal of semiconductor technology and science Vol.6 No.1
We demonstrate highly manufacturable Multi-channel Field Effect Transistor (McFET) on bulk Si wafer. McFET shows excellent transistor characteristics, such as 5~6 times higher drive current than planar MOSFET, ideal subthreshold swing, low drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) without pocket implantation and negligible body bias dependency, maintaining the same source/drain resistance as that of a planar transistor due to the unique feature of McFET. And suitable threshold voltage (VT) for SRAM operation and high static noise margin (SNM) are achieved by using TiN metal gate electrode.
Sung,Kwon,Kim,Ji,Eun,Park,Kyung,Hwan,Kim,Jin,Mo,Cho,문장섭,Wan-Soo,Yoon,김세훈,김영일,김영준,Ho,Sung,Kim,도윤식,Jae-Sung,Park,윤홍인,서영범,Kyoung-Su,Sung,송진호,Chan,Woo,Wee,Se-Hoon,Lee,Do,Hoon,Lim,임정호,장종희,한명훈,홍제범,Kihwan,Hw 대한뇌종양학회 2020 Brain Tumor Research and Treatment Vol.8 No.1
Background: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO) conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with brain tumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practice for patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included 7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategies in specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. Results: In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection with adjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3 cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgery for surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according to the number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the survey about PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy as the first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variation among respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapy was most preferred. Conclusion: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with brain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.
The electronic states of a single Bi(111) bilayer and its edges, suggested as a two-dimensional topological insulator, are investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and first-principles calculations. Well-ordered bilayer films and islands with zigzag edges are grown epitaxially on a cleaved Bi2Te2Se crystal. The calculation shows that the band gap of the Bi bilayer closes with a formation of a new but small hybridization gap due to the strong interaction between Bi and Bi2Te2Se. Nevertheless, the topological nature of the Bi bilayer and the topological edge state are preserved only with an energy shift. The edge-enhanced local density of states are identified and visualized unambiguously by STS in good agreement with the calculation. This is a clear sign of the topological edge state, which corresponds to the quantum spin Hall state. The interfacial state between Bi and Bi2Te2Se is also identified inside the band gap region. This state exhibits a subtle edge modulation, which was previously interpreted as the evidence of the topological edge state.
광섬유 센서를 내장한 스마트 강연선을 세그멘탈 박스거더 교량의 보강공사에 적용하였다. 스마트 강연선은 이 공사에 사용된 타 강연선과 마찬가지로 1960 MPa급 15.7 mm 직경을 갖는 아연도금 강연선을 기본으로 하였다. 적용 대상 구간인 3개 경간의 좌우 보강텐던에 대응하여 강연선 당 3개의 FBG 센서를 갖도록 6개의 스마트 강연선을 제작·적용하고, 긴장력도입 시에 긴장력을 계측한 결과, 18개의 센서에서 5% 이하의 편차를 갖으면서 평균 긴장력도 목표값에 근접함을 확인하였다. 현재 스마트 강연선을 광통신망에 연결하는 작업이 진행 중에 있으며, 완료 시 언제 어디서나 모니터링이 가능해진다.
백승원 ( Seung Won Paik ), 한철 ( Chul Han ), 홍윤식 ( Yun Sik Hong ), 최성혁 ( Sung Hyuk Choi ), 이성우 ( Sung Woo Lee ), 문성우 ( Sung Woo Moon ), 윤영훈 ( Young Hoon Yoon ), 유우성 ( Woo Sung Yu ), 김덕환 ( Duk Hwan Kim ) 대한외상학회 2010 大韓外傷學會誌 Vol.23 No.2
Purpose: In Korea, trauma is the 3rd most common cause of death. The trauma treatment system is divided into pre-hospital and hospital stages. Deaths occurring in the pre-hospital stage are 50% of the total death, and 20% of those are deaths that are preventable. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to calculate the preventable death rates caused by trauma in our current pre-hospital system, to analyze the appropriateness of the treatment of traumatized patients and to draw a conclusions about the problems we have. Methods: The study was done on traumatized patients who expired at the emergency department from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009, at the Korea University Medical Centers in Anam, Guro and Ansan. The data on the patients were reviewed retrospectively based on characteristics, conditions on admission and trauma severity. The patient`s RTS (revised trauma score) and ISS (injury severity score) was calculated. Preventable death rate was calculated by TRISS (the trauma score-injury severity score). Results: A total of 168 patients were enrolled. All patients were intubated and underwent CPR. Of the total, 72% patients were male, and traffic accidents were the most common form of trauma (52.4%), falls being second (28.6%). Head injury, solitary or multiple, was the most common cause of death (55.4%). Thirty-eight (38, 22.6%) deaths were preventable. The 22.6% preventable death rate consisted of 15.5% potentially preventable and 7.1% definitely preventable deaths. Based on a logistic regression analysis, the relationship between the time intervals until transfusion and imaging and death was statistically significant in the hospital stage. In the pre-hospital stage, transit time from the site of the injury to the hospital showed a significant relationship with the mortality rate. Conclusion: One hundred sixty-eight (168) patients died of trauma at the 3 hospitals of Korea University Medical Center. The TRISS method was used to calculate the preventable death rate, with a result of 22.6%. The only factor that was significant related to the preventable death rate in the pre-hospital stage was the time from injury to hospital arrival, and the time intervals until transfusion and imaging were the two factors that showed significance in the hospital stage. Shortening the time of treatment in the field and transferring the patient to the hospital as quickly as possible is the most important life-saving step in the pre-hospital stage. In the hospital stage, the primary survey, resuscitation and diagnosis should proceed simultaneously. (J Korean Soc Traumatol 2010;23:75-82)
This study has been carried out to investigate Pyu-Juk ( 肺積 ), Pyu-Ong ( 肺癰 ), Pyu-Ju ( 肺疽 ), Pyu-Am ( 肺癌 ) by referring to 56 literatures. The results were obtained as follows; 1. The treatllent-method of Pyu-Juk ( 肺積 ) are Ik Ki ( 益氣 ), SuI Yem Wha ( 洩陰火 ), So Juk ( 消積 ), Wha Juk ( 化積 ), Son Juk ( 損積 ), Ma Juk ( 摩積 ) Jo Chil Gi ( 調七氣 ), and herbs are Sik Bun Tang ( 息賁湯 ), Sik Bun Hwan ( 息賁丸 ), O Juk Hwan ( 五積丸 ), Ban ha Tang ( 半夏湯 ), Gil Gyung Tang ( 桔梗湯 ), Dae Chil Gi Tang ( 大七氣湯 ), Chil Gi Hwan ( 七氣湯 ) , Ga Gam Sik BlDl Hwan ( 加減息賁丸 ), Bil Rang San ( 檳郞散 ). 2. The treatment-method of Pyu-Ong ( 肺癰 ) Yang pyu ( 養肺 ), Yang Hyul ( 養血 ), Yang Gi ( 陽氣 ), Chung Geam Youn Pye ( 淸金潤肺 ), Hal Dam Bae Nong ( 豁痰排膿 ), Saeng Gi ( 生肌 ), herbs are Gil Gyung Tang ( 桔梗湯 ), Jung Ryuk Dae Jo Sa Pyu Tang ( ??大棗瀉肺湯 ), Chung Geom Wy Gyung Tang ( 千金 葦莖湯 ) Hwang Gi tang ( 黃嗜湯 ), Hyun Sam Chung Pyu Eum ( 玄蔘淸肺飮 ), Sip Mi Hwan ( 十味丸 ), Gil Gyung Baek San ( 桔梗白散 ), So Hong Eum ( 消膿飮 ), Sam Gi Bo Pyu Tang ( 蔘嗜補肺湯 ), sam Chul Gun Bi Tang ( 蔘朮健脾湯 ), Chung Pyu Gil Gyung Tang ( 淸肺桔梗湯 ), Yu Sung Hwan ( 如聖丸 ). 3. The treatment-method of Pyu-Ju ( 肺疽 ) are Be Bi ( 補脾 ), Bo Pyu ( 補肺 ), herbs are Hwang Gi Gum Jung Tang( 黃嗜補裨湯 ), lnSamBoPyuSan (人蔘補肺散) 4. The treatment-method of Pyu-Am ( 肺癌 ) are Bal Han ( 發汗 ), Chung Yul Hae Dok ( 淸熱解毒 ), Gang Hwa Do Dam ( 降火導痰 ), Hwa Rak Hwa a ( 和絡化瘀 ) Ik Pyu ( 益肺 ), Gun Bi ( 健脾 ), Ja Eum Yun Pyu ( 滋陰潤肺 ), Gi Hu Yang Bo ( 氣虛兩補 ), herbs are Gyul Yua Hae Dok Tang ( 莖熱解毒湯 ), Gang Hwa Jae ( 降火劑 ), Chil Yul Do Dam Tang ( 治熱導痰湯 ), Chong Ho Byul Gap Tang ( 靑蒿鱉甲湯 ), Ga gam Gil Gyung Tang ( 加減桔梗湯 ), Sang Mak San ( 生脈散), Yuk Mi Ji Hwang Tang ( 六味地黃湯 ), Baek Hap Go Geum Tang ( 百合固金湯 ), Dae Be Won Jun ( 大補元煎 ), Ga Mi Jae Che Bo Pyu Tang ( 加味載體補肺湯 ).
In this research, for the first time, we tried to analyse Raman hyper-spectral dentin data using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to see its possibility of adoption for the dental analysis software. We captured hyperspectral dentin data on 569 spots on a molar with dental lesion by HR800 Micro Raman Spectrometer at UMKC-CRISP (University of Missouri at Kansas City-Center for Research on Interfacial Structure and Properties). Each spot has 1,005 hyperspectral data. We applied ICA to the captured hyper-spectral data of dentin for evaluating ICA approach, and compared it with the well known multivariate analysis method, PCA. As a result of the experiment, ICA approach shows better local characteristic of dentin than the result of PCA. We confirmed that ICA also could be a good method along with PCA in the dental analysis software.
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본 연구는 1990년대말 한국경제에 불어 닥친 금융위기와 관련하여 기업의 부도위험이 한국경제 전반에 미치는 영향과 그로 인한 기업의 가치 변화를 1991년도부터 2007년 까지 기업의 재무정보 등을 이용하여 실증적으로 분석하였다. 분석을 위하여 본 연구는 기업부도를 예측하는 모형을 개발하였으며, Altman의 K 지수를 산출하였다. 부도예측모형과 Altman의 K 지수를 통하여 한국 기업의 외부위험에 대한 취약성을 진단하였다. 연도별 추이를 살펴 본 결과, 기업의 부실가능성은 1997년도 금융위기 발생 이전부터 상당히 높은 수준에 이르렀다가, 금융위기를 거치면서 상당히 급속하게 감소하였다. 재벌기업의 영향을 살펴 본 결과, 재벌기업의 부실가능성은 금융위기 이전과 이후에 있어서도 비재벌기업보다 상대적으로 낮은 수준이었다. 특히, 재벌기업은 비재벌기업보다 금융위기 이후에 훨씬 높은 기업가치를 보였다. 본 연구는 기업의 부실에 영향을 미치는 미시적 요소들이 1990년대 초 부터 지속적으로 기업의 체질을 약화시키고, 결과적으로 한국경제가 외부로부터 발생한 위기에 노출될 수 밖에 없음을 보여 주었다. 또한, 금융위기를 거치면서 시행된 각종 재벌규제 정책이나 기업들의 위기대처 노력이 금융위기 이후 한국의 기업들이 보다 견실하게 변화하였음을 보여 주었다. In this study, we assess the effects of default risks and financial performance of firms on the overall risk of Korea around its financial crisis in the late 1990s and on their market values, using firm-level data from 1991 to 2007. We develop default prediction models and calculate Altman's K scores to measure the overall risks and quality of firms respectively. Based on our own default prediction models, we have shown that the default risks of firms were extremely high before the crisis and drastically declined after the crisis. We have also found that the default risks of chaebol firms were much lower before and after the financial crisis and that their market values were much higher after the crisis, compared with those of non-chaebol firms. This implies that the Korean economy with high sovereign risks for a long time experienced the crisis due to weak firm-level fundamentals, regained its vitality due to significant improvements made by chaebol firms through the crisis and has become much stronger than before.
In this research, we presented an effective clustering method based on ICA for the analysis of huge Raman hyperspectral dental data. The hyperspectral dataset captured by HR800 micro Raman spectrometer at UMKC-CRISP(University of Missouri-Kansas City Center for Research on Interfacial Structure and Properties), has 569 local point has 1,005 hyperspectal dentin data. We compared the clustering effectiveness and the clustering time for the case of using all dataset directly and the cases of using the scores after PCA and ICA. As the result of experiment, the cases of using the scores after PCA and ICA showed, not only more detailed internal dentin information in the aspect of medical analysis, but also about 7~19 times much shorter processing times for clustering. ICA based approach also presented better performance than that of PCA, in terms of the detailed internal information of dentin and the clustering time. Therefore, we could confirm the effectiveness if ICA for the analysis of Raman hyperspectral dental data.